Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

The Philosophical Review: Vol. 123, Issue 4, October 2014

Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

The Philosophical Review: Vol. 123, Issue 4, October 2014

Article excerpt

Nonclassical Minds and Indeterminate Survival, J. ROBERT G. WILLIAMS

Revisionary theories of logic or truth require revisionary theories of mind. This essay outlines nonclassically based theories of rational belief, desire, and decision making, singling out the supervaluational family for special attention. To see these nonclassical theories of mind in action, this essay examines a debate between David Lewis and Derek Parfit over what matters in survival. Lewis argued that indeterminacy in personal identity allows caring about psychological connectedness and caring about personal identity to amount to the same thing. The essay argues that Lewis's treatment of two of Parfit's puzzle cases--degreed survival and fission--presuppose different nonclassical treatments of belief and desire.

On the Very Idea of Direction of Fit, KIM FROST

Direction of fit theories usually claim that beliefs are such that they "aim at truth" or "ought to fit" the world, and desires (or intentions) are such that they "aim at realization" or the world "ought to fit" them. This essay argues that no theory of direction of fit is correct. The two directions of fit are supposed to be determinations of one and the same determinable two-place relation, differing only in the ordering of favored terms. But there is no such determinable because of ineliminable asymmetries between the way that beliefs "aim at truth" and the way that desires (or intentions) "aim at realization. …

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