Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

The Impact of Age, Education and Seniority on Motivation of Employees

Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

The Impact of Age, Education and Seniority on Motivation of Employees

Article excerpt

JEL Classification: M12.


Human resource management is one of the newest approaches of personnel management which, as well as changed approach to personnel, results from social changes at the end of the 20th century that affects all private and public spheres of life. The basis of this management consists in an effort of senior managers to change personality traits of supervised employees following the objectives of an enterprise (Bolfikova et al. 2010), to create positive approach to their work, work team and at last also to identify with the corporate culture, its strategy and with the objectives of an enterprise (Blaskova, Grazulis 2009). The issue of human resource management is connected to the issue of its utilisation in the context of outsourcing principles (Potkany 2011; Vetrakova et al. 2011) and process audit (Zavadska et al. 2013). Personnel controlling tries to find its position in the area of motivation too. In a narrow sense, its character is quantitative and operative and it evaluates efficiency of personnel processes. In a broad sense, it monitors the quality of human resource management, its tools and practices (Kucharcikova 2014). Different parameters and indicators are required by personnel controlling to manage different personnel processes (Potkany et al. 2012).

A man became the most important and the most expensive factor of production in an enterprise, its main asset which, if an enterprise wants to exist, run and develop, must be used to achieve goals very carefully. In order to meet these requirements, employees must be motivated by the enterprise (Bivainis, Morkvenas 2008). If we want to achieve successful results when managing people, negotiating or their reaction predicting we must respect differences among people (Stacho et al. 2013; Teplicka 2004). It means their intrinsic motivation must be influenced by motivational tools, methods and techniques (Skackauskiene, Kiselevskaj a 2014). The aim of the paper is to define terms like age, education and seniority and their impact on the level of employee motivation and in case of some significant differences to propose the way of employee motivation. Some changes in the area of motivation could be observed in the research conducted in Slovenia and Croatia (Kropivsek et al. 2011). The research was carried out in the year 2012. We also tried to prove or to disprove the statement that considering the age, completed education and seniority the motivation requirements of employees change. Following the Maslow's hierarchy of needs we suppose that requirements of employees that are fulfilled will become unnecessary. Hereby, we suppose that employees with better education and greater seniority will prefer different motivation factors than employees with lower education and less seniority. Main hypothesis is the presumption that mentioned factors affect the level of employee motivation and employers can affect employee performance actively through their knowledge. Mentioned facts are described also by Blaskova (2010) and by Jelacic, Moro, Drabek, Sujova (2012).

1. Issue

Motivation is one of the essential elements of human resource management. Without appropriate level of motivated behaviour and activity we cannot determine goals and require their meeting. Motivation is an important term commonly used to encourage people to carry out the assigned work with sincerity, dedication, and enthusiasm. Motivation is the tonic to provide additional energy to overcome the fatigue, disinterest and feelings to drop the job (Srivastava, Kakkar 2008). Considering the employee motivation their working results can be expected. Statement that the performance depends mainly on human motivation is simplified especially because motivation is not the only factor affecting the performance. Other factors affecting the employee performance are abilities, knowledge and skills of a man determining their career growth potential (Korsakiene 2011). …

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