Academic journal article Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development

The Relationship between Racial Identity Status Attitudes and Acculturation among Chinese and Korean Americans: A Criterion Profile Analysis

Academic journal article Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development

The Relationship between Racial Identity Status Attitudes and Acculturation among Chinese and Korean Americans: A Criterion Profile Analysis

Article excerpt

This study tested the relationship between racial identity and acculturation among 223 Asian Americans self-identifying as Chinese American or Korean American. Findings showed within-group variations among the study participants with regard to their racial identity status attitudes and acculturation. Using criterion profile analysis, the authors found 2 distinctive criterion profiles of racial identity status attitudes that significantly related to higher levels of acculturation among Chinese American and Korean American participants. Implications for multicultural counseling, racial identity, and acculturation research are discussed.

Keywords: racial identity status profiles, acculturation, Asian Americans

Este estudio puso a prueba la relacion entre identidad racial y aculturacion entre 223 individuos asiatico-americanos que se identifican a si mismos como chinoamericanos o coreano-americanos. Los resultados mostraron variaciones dentro del miso grupo entre los participates del estudio en cuanto a su aculturacion y sus actitudes hacia el estatus de su identidad racial. Usando un analisis de perfil de criterio, los autores encontraron 2 perfiles de criterio distintivos para las actitudes hacia el estatus de identidad racial que estaban relacionados significativamente con niveles mas altos de aculturacion entre los participantes chino-americanos y coreano-americanos. Se discuten las implicaciones para investigaciones sobre consejeria multicultural, identidad racial y aculturacion.

Palabras clave: perfiles de estatus de identidad racial, aculturacion, asiaticoamericanos

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Asian Americans represent 5.6% of the U.S. population and are one of the fastest growing racial groups in the United States, showing a 46% growth during the period between 2000 and 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a). More than 17.3 million people self-identify as Asian American, and many are children of Asian immigrants who are faced with challenges related to their race and ethnic identity (Chae & Foley, 2010; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010b). Asian Americans may adhere to a variety of American and Asian ethnic (e.g., Chinese, Filipino, Korean) values, beliefs, and practices that reflect a broad range of acculturation levels (Kim, Atkinson, & Umemoto, 2001).

acculturation

Acculturation takes place when groups from different cultures have contact and changes occur in the original cultural patterns of the groups (Yoon et al., 2013). In the United States, acculturation is described as one group adopting the mainstream culture, whereas enculturation is the retention of one's culture of origin (Berry, 1998; Kim et ah, 2001). The acculturation experience has a significant effect on nondominant/immigrant group members' sense of self when they are racial/ethnic minorities (Kohatsu, 2005). Acculturation has been understood as immersion or assimilation in the dominant culture (Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000) and, in time, as a process in which individuals simultaneously maintain the values and behaviors of both cultures (e.g., Berry, 1998; Cabassa, 2003; Chung, Kim, & Abreu, 2004; Ryder et al., 2000). Both sets of ideas have been supported in research studies with Asian Americans (Chung et ah, 2004; Ying & Han, 2008). For example, it has been found that orientation to the culture of origin and orientation to American culture were independent of each other (Ying & Han, 2008). Past studies have shown that acculturation experience was predicted by ethnic background (Berry, 1995).

Scholars now consider the impact of the racial climate in the United States on individuals' acculturation experiences (Concepcion, Kohatsu, & Yeh, 2012). Asian Americans are often perceived as immigrants (S. J. Lee, Wong, & Alvarez, 2008), and must contend with a variety of racial stereotypes, such as the model minority myth (i.e., they are well adjusted and successful). This view masks the social concerns (e. …

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