Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

An Asynchronous Learning Approach for the Instructional Component of a Dual-Campus Pharmacy Resident Teaching Program

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

An Asynchronous Learning Approach for the Instructional Component of a Dual-Campus Pharmacy Resident Teaching Program

Article excerpt


Current accreditation standards for pharmacy residents include broad goals and objectives related to developing teaching skills across a wide range of settings and audiences. (1) Within the scope of these standards, specific curricular content and teaching methods offered in resident teaching programs varies, though pedagogy instruction prior to mentored teaching experiences is common. (2-9) Guidelines for resident teaching experiences were developed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) to promote standardization. (10) These guidelines address teaching experience standards for residencies with or without a formal teaching program or certificate program through an affiliated academic institution. Suggested minimum goals for resident teaching programs include baseline pedagogy instruction, teaching experiences under the guidance of a faculty mentor, and teaching philosophy for inclusion in a teaching portfolio. Suggested topics for pedagogy instruction include, but are not limited to, creating a teaching philosophy statement, writing assessment questions, precepting students, and learning the roles and responsibilities of a faculty member and/or preceptor. The guideline recommends "active participation in pedagogy seminars" in teaching programs for pedagogy knowledge development prior to teaching experiences, but does not stipulate a delivery format for this instruction. A live seminar approach appears common for pedagogy instruction within teaching programs, although prerecorded or distance learning sessions have also been used. (2-9,11-12)

In fall 2010, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (ACPHS) began offering a teaching program to residents and fellows affiliated with the main campus in Albany, New York and the satellite campus in Colchester, Vermont. While not a "certificate program" according to New York State Department of Education requirements, the teaching program was designed to include requirements comparable to established resident teaching certificate pro grams in other states. (3-5,9,12,13) Our teaching program offered pedagogy instruction (Part I) prior to engaging in teaching experiences under the direction of a faculty mentor on either campus (Part II). For the first 2 offerings, Part I involved monthly seminars delivered in both synchronous and asynchronous formats; seminars were offered live through distance learning, with recorded content later posted in a learning management system. Related readings and suggested discussion board activities were also posted in the learning management system.

Beginning with the 2012-2013 offering, the teaching program was redesigned to offer Part I in an asynchronous online learning environment. This manuscript concentrates on modifications to the content, delivery, and coordination of Part I of the teaching program. Description of Part II is included in this manuscript only where applicable to the redesign of Part I.


The need to change our approach to pedagogy instruction in Part I was informed by 2 years of program evaluation data. Participant evaluation data from the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 offerings was limited because the response rate was low, but the data was consistent with informal feedback collected from teaching program faculty members and residency/fellowship program directors. The content, delivery, and coordination of Part I's pedagogy instruction needed improvement. Topic organization, sequencing, and relevance were primary concerns. Technology barriers existed with the delivery of the live distance learning seminars and lecture recordings. Participants also experienced problems with accessing learning materials within the learning management system. Teaching program faculty members were concerned with participant engagement, citing limited attendance at live seminar sessions, technology issues with recorded sessions, and underuse of the discussion board. Challenges associated with coordinating Part I included evaluation of knowledge development among participants and regular oversight of their engagement. …

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