Academic journal article Education

The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

Academic journal article Education

The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

Article excerpt


Writing is the expression of feelings, ideas, desires and events in our minds through various symbols based on certain rules. In other words, it is the process of putting the information structured in mind on paper (Gunes, 2013: 157). One of the important determinants of this operational process is the purpose of the author to write his/her text. The purpose wanted to be reached through the text determines the type of text and the wording used in the text.

In general, texts can be divided into two categories as informative and literary texts (Ozdemir, 2007). On the other hand, every author refers to some ways of expression when structuring his/her text. While narration and description are mostly used in literary texts, explanation, argumentation and description can be used in informative texts. The author uses each of these ways of expression for a certain purpose. Explanation is usually used to provide information to the reader; argumentation to reveal various aspects of a topic and persuade the reader; and narration to aesthetic pleasure to the reader within the scope of an event. As for description that is used in both literary texts and informative texts, it is used to inform depending on the purpose of the text, or to explain/narrate an impression.

"Although its area of usage is very broad, description can be defined as the way of expression that reflects/conveys an impression that an object, person, situation or an image have on the person who is in the position of narrator/convey or. In this regard, description is making some kind of painting based on the data obtained from observations." (Gunduz & Simsek, 2011: 51). Description addressed readers' senses. In other words, the author wants to deliver his/her impressions related to the outside world, the entities. For this, he/she chooses a detail through a careful observation, and organises the detail in a way that form an image (Ozdemir, 2002: 33). This organisation achieved with intense attributions is the one that is related to the physical world (Gunay, 2003: 214).

A descriptive text becomes apparent with the use of various lexical and grammatical tools that enable naming an object, referring to it, putting it in a time or place, and delivering the impression that it has to the reader (Kiran & Kiran, 2003: 20). However, it is not easy as it seems to make lexical and grammatical arrangements in a way to form an image with the words related to an object, situation or scene. Thus, although description activities are included in the Turkish Teaching Program, it can be argued that students are not successful in this regard considering the pre and posttest findings of this study. It may be due to that they do not know and cannot sufficiently use lexical and grammatical ways of expression that strengthen language use in Turkish, and makes expression more effective.

In every language, there are certain rhetoric or language features to strengthen expression and make it fluent. One of these is metaphors. Metaphors can be easily found in descriptive texts as a semantic phenomenon. "A metaphor is created by using an object or event to better express a feature of another object or event. People can use metaphors unique to themselves." (Aksan, 1999: 61). "Metaphors are frequently used to make the elements in the texts easier to understand, and clear in the reader's mind. To use a metaphor is to start a description. As in a description, the purpose of a metaphor is to form a detailed picture of the object or event in the receiver's mind (Uzdu, 2008: 46)

Another language feature that can be used to strengthen the meaning or clarify a term is reduplications. Reduplications reinforce and strengthen a term as well as adding an important expressive strength and effectiveness to the sentence in terms of syntax (Aksan, 1999: 175). The objects in a description look more apparent through reduplications, which helps readers to differentiate these objects more easily. …

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