Academic journal article Law, Social Justice and Global Development Journal

The Limits and Potential of Judicial Review and Truth Commissions in Safeguarding the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: An Examination of the Implications of the US-Mexico Border Security Wall on the Lipan Apache

Academic journal article Law, Social Justice and Global Development Journal

The Limits and Potential of Judicial Review and Truth Commissions in Safeguarding the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: An Examination of the Implications of the US-Mexico Border Security Wall on the Lipan Apache

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

The Apache who are known as the Nde' (or people of the land) are located in the proximity of the Lower Rio Grande where the US government has constructed a mega security wall. This landmark is situated on the border with Mexico and presents an obstacle to the free movement of the Nde' across the previously porous border. It has also resulted in the US government depriving the native people of their estate which was protected under treaty law as an Indian reservation. The Lipan Apache are opposed to this project and have protested to the federal government as the seizure of the land was without the free, prior and informed consent. The outcome has been the assertion of self-determination by means of a Truth Commission that will document the rights that they claim have been infringed. The focal point of the Native American challenge to the security wall is that there are significant legal fictions in US law which assume the religious and racial superiority of Euro-American settler juridical systems over their customary practices. These override the indigenous peoples' rights to self-governance, lands and territories. They have now convened academic and professional groups which accuse the US of violating international human rights laws and private property rights in constructing the fence along its southern Mexican border.

The US government has constructed the border wall by the enactment of the Secure Fence Act 2006. This has created a statutory regime to prevent challenges to its construction and militarisation. It has led to protest by the indigenous people who reside in the bordering states of the US and they have raised the matter as a breach of fundamental rights at the UN.

The federal government has provided the Department of Homeland Security the power to construct the wall. It has included an ouster to prevent the jurisdiction of the courts by means of the Real ID Act 2005. Section 102 provides an exclusion clause which omits the grounds for legal challenge of executive decisions. This has suspended the environmental laws that are a plank of legislation which prevents contamination but cannot be challenged in court.

The clause states:

Not withstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to waive all legal requirements that are in the Secretary's sole discretion, to determine as necessary to ensure expeditious construction of the barriers and roads. (1) In pursuing the enactment of the wall under the Secure Fence Act the DHS in late 2005 "waived in their entirety" a series of statutes that include the Endangered Species Act 1982; the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 1916; National Environmental Policy Act 1982; Coastal Zone Management Act 1972; the Clean Water Act 1999; and the National Historic Preservation Act 1965. There has also been a waiver of the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act 1990, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1994 in Texas.

In September 2012, the Lipan Apache who are the worst effected of the Indian tribes by the building of the wall established a Truth Commission to examine the history of indigenous treaties, land claims and dispossession in South Texas-Mexico in relation to the human rights violations, with assistance from the International Centre for transitional Justice (ICTJ) and the Barcelona International Peace Resource Centre (BIPRC). This has an international dimension and the preamble states as follows:

A Truth Commission could serve an instrumental purpose in the United States and Mexico border region in light of the militarization programs and unresolved jury trials related to forced and armed dispossession exercised by the Department of Homeland Security against certain communities. These issues obviously were repressed by the Bush administration, and have been severely peripheralized by the Obama administration, costing the affected Indigenous peoples and taxpayers enormous resources better applied toward improving social relations and systems with the consent of the peoples. …

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