Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The Personal and Professional Domain of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Outcomes 2013 includes self-awareness and professionalism. (1) Emotional intelligence helps to elaborate on and fulfill both competencies. Specifically, the self-awareness outcome requires that student pharmacists be able to "examine and reflect on personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth" (emphasis ours). This competency addresses one's ability to perceive and understand emotions, a critical aspect of EI as defined by Mayer et al. (2) In addition, the professionalism outcome requires that student pharmacists "exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other health care providers, and society" (emphasis ours). In professional interactions, student pharmacists must manage emotions, another critical component of EI. (2) Given the increased attention to affective development, we propose that EI should be considered when designing curricular outcomes.

Emotional intelligence is an indispensable ingredient for effective leadership. (3) More specifically, as health care continues to evolve towards an atmosphere of interdisciplinary teamwork, the impact of EI on workplace behaviors is of particular interest. Development of EI is viewed as a potential remedy for the deficiencies in communication and interpersonal skills of professional school graduates as perceived by their employers. (4) In addition, aspects of EI have been linked to job satisfaction and the commitment of an employee to their organization, (5) leading to the conclusion that emotionally intelligent employees are both happy and committed. (6) Sy and colleagues concluded that employees with high EI may be better able to understand factors that elicit negative emotions and to take appropriate action (eg, stress management). (7)

Emotional intelligence, as defined by Goleman, is a type of social intelligence consisting of several personal and social competencies, including self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. (8) The concepts and frameworks used to describe and measure EI are rooted in earlier work by Mayer et al. (9) Their work led to the development of an ability-based EI model, which addresses one's ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions and to use emotion to facilitate thought. (2) The foundational work of Mayer et al has been built upon by Goleman and others, leading to the availability of instruments to assess EI, which are either ability-based, self-reported, or a combination of both.

The potential impact of EI on mental health is particularly relevant to health professions education. One area of mental health on which the impact of EI has been studied is stress management. The body's response to stress may cause damaging effects in several organs and systems of the body, including the brain and the cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. (10) The ability to recognize and repair a negative mood is an example of an EI skill. Goldman found that individuals who did not repair a negative mood were more likely to experience illness when under stress. (11) Individuals effective at regulating emotions, both their own and others,' may be able to protect themselves from adverse effects of stress. Salovey et al showed that perceived EI, as measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), correlated with fewer physical symptoms resulting from stressors, greater adaptation to stressors, and attenuation of cortisol release due to stressors. (12) Using an EI assessment tool developed by Schutte and colleagues (13) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Pau and Croucher found EI to correlate with effective stress management among dental students. (14) On the other hand, individuals effective at perceiving their emotions may be more impacted by stress. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.