Academic journal article Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal

What Influences Entrepreneurial Career Choice?: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sally Caird's GET2 for Japanese High School Students

Academic journal article Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal

What Influences Entrepreneurial Career Choice?: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sally Caird's GET2 for Japanese High School Students

Article excerpt


Many statistics and studies are indicating that the Japanese are less entrepreneurial than most of the people in other countries. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor annual report (Amoros et al., 2014), which generates relevant primary information on entrepreneurship, providing harmonized measures about the attitudes, activities and characteristics of individuals who participate in various phases of entrepreneurship in 70 economies, the Japanese figure for the Total Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) rate (percentage of adult population (18-64 years of age)) is 3.7%. The figure is the second lowest one amongst the surveyed economies.

According to the Japanese government statistics, the exit rate of Japanese enterprises is higher than the entry rate of that since the late 80's continuously for about two decades (Japan small business research institute, 2013). As the result, the number of Japanese enterprises in 2012 has been reduced by 1.56 million compared to its peak in 1986.

Considering a rapidly changing world business environment, however, it goes without saying that to cultivate entrepreneurship for Japanese is becoming increasingly important. With this background, the entrepreneurship education is attracting attention in Japan in these days, though the teaching fields do not accept the educational programs fully up to present. To spread entrepreneurship education further, it is necessary to demonstrate its educational benefit. To measure the effect correctly, we assess the participants' entrepreneurial conditions and personal qualities before the entrepreneurship educational program is launched. Therefore, we conducted the Caird's (2013) GET2 (General measure of Enterprising Tendency test) for Japanese high school students.

In this study, we reveal the entrepreneurial tendency of Japanese high school students, and compare the students who have the willingness or confidence to be entrepreneurs with who do not. The results are expected to suggest the keys to develop the effective contents of entrepreneurship education.


Some literature focused on childhood experiences, in terms of the willingness or confidence to be an entrepreneur at the time of adolescence. Dyer (1992) found that significantly more entrepreneurs came from the families where their fathers or mothers were self-employed. Dyer and Handler (1994) concluded the parental role model as self-employed workers influenced their children to acquire entrepreneurial attitudes and behavior. Crant (1996) mentioned that entrepreneurial intentions were significantly associated with gender, education, having an entrepreneurial parent, and possessing a proactive personality (p. 42). Drennan et al. (2005) examined that the influence of childhood experiences through the survey of more than 1,000 university students. As the result of their study, they pointed out that perceptions of entrepreneurship were influenced not only by parental ownership of a business, but also by such childhood experiences as encountering many difficulties like the loss of a parent, parental divorce, and economic hardship, and as frequent relocation.

Amongst the Japanese studies, Ohe and Ohe (1996) pointed out, through the survey of 310 entrepreneurs and 334 corporate employees, the image of an entrepreneur is formed through the accumulation of experiences in three stages, namely, upbringing, childhood experience, and work experience. In particular, "role models played by their parents", "pseudo-entrepreneurial experiences" and "personal extraordinary experiences" were the important factors which influenced to form an image of an entrepreneur. Among these factors, "parental role models" and "extraordinary experiences" were beyond human control. Therefore, they concluded, in order for a person to form an image of an entrepreneur, it is particularly important to encourage him/her to have pseudo-entrepreneurial experiences during their childhood. …

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