Academic journal article The Psychological Record

Exemplars and Categories Necessary for the Emergence of Intraverbals about Transitive Reasoning in Typically Developing Children

Academic journal article The Psychological Record

Exemplars and Categories Necessary for the Emergence of Intraverbals about Transitive Reasoning in Typically Developing Children

Article excerpt

Intraverbals are verbal operants characterized by the emission of a verbal response after the presentation of a verbal stimulus that shows no point-to-point correspondence with the response (Skinner, 1957). Intraverbals are ubiquitous in everyday life, especially in the context of social interactions, such as conversations, songs, stories, and plays, and in most academic skills (e.g., telling the alphabet, counting or answering utterances like, "What is your name," "Name the opposite of dark"). In addition, more sophisticated verbal skills, like answering questions about what one did on the weekend or telling what utensils are used for making soup, also involve intraverbals. Intraverbals can be directly taught via transfer-of-stimulus-control procedures in which echoics, tacts, or textual prompts and reinforcers are presented (see reviews by Axe, 2008, and Cihon, 2007), they can be brought with other teaching strategies (e.g., Greer, Yuan, & Gautreaux, 2005; Kisamore, Carr, & LeBlanc, 2011; Sautter, LeBlanc, Jay, Goldsmith, & Carr, 2011), and they can emerge from the learning of other operants.

An important developmental milestone occurs when a person demonstrates novel skills that have not been taught directly to him or her, as an extra outcome of learning-related skills, typically by direct contingencies (Greer & Ross, 2008; Perez-Gonzalez, 2015). Demonstrations of novel skills of a sort constitute demonstrations of a type of emergence. Emergent process are involved in generative behavior and in responding to novel verbal utterances, for example, in the generation and understanding of metaphors and analogies. The emergence of novel intraverbals has been widely demonstrated in studies that have often been analyzed in terms of categorization skills (e.g., Belloso-Diaz & Perez-Gonzalez, 2015a, 2015b; Braam & Poling, 1983; Chase, Johnson, & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1985; Partington & Bailey, 1993; Petursdottir, Carr, Lechago, & Almason, 2008; Sundberg & Sundberg, 1990; Vignes, 2007; Watkins, Pack-Teixeira, & Howard, 1989). Also, the emergence of intraverbals after learning tact and listener repertories (Belloso-Diaz & Perez-Gonzalez, 2015a, b; Petursdottir, Carr et al., 2008; Petursdottir & Haflidadottir, 2009; Petursdottir, Olafsdottir, & Aradottir, 2008) or from other intraverbals (e.g., Carp & Petursdottir, 2012; Perez-Gonzalez, Garcia-Asenjo, Williams, & Camerero, 2007; Perez-Gonzalez, Herszlikowicz, & Williams, 2008; Perez-Gonzalez, Salameh, & Garcia-Asenjo, 2014b; Poison & Parsons, 2000) has been broadly demonstrated.

The processes involved in learning and emergence of intraverbals are processes involved in complex human behavior known in everyday life as reasoning. More specifically, tasks described as demonstrative of transitive inference (e.g., Munnelly, Dymond, & Hinton, 2010; Solomon, Frank, Smith, Ly, & Carter, 2011; Werchan & Gomez, 2013) are closely related to intraverbals. Moreover, processes involved in the emergence of intraverbals may be involved in the processes of transitive inference and other deductive reasoning processes.

Perez-Gonzalez et al. (2008) taught and probed intraverbals with the ABC structure, typical of the stimulus equivalence paradigm and of deductive reasoning, with 5- and 6-year-old children. In Experiment 1, the experimenters taught A-B relations, such as "Name a city of Argentina"--"Buenos Aires" (where A1 is "Argentina" and B1 is "Buenos Aires") and B-C relations, such as, "Name a park of Buenos Aires"--"El Botanico" (where B1 is "Buenos Aires" and C1 is "El Botanico"). It is important to note that within the experimental procedure the researchers included "city" in A-B to prompt a response of the B category (the stimulus was "Name a city of Argentina"), and they included "park" in the A-C probe to prompt a response of the C category (the stimulus was "Name a park of Argentina"). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.