Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Organizational Citizenship Behavior & HRM Practices in Indian Banks

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Organizational Citizenship Behavior & HRM Practices in Indian Banks

Article excerpt

Introduction

Attitudes, skills, and behaviors of the bank employees particularly the frontline employees affect customer perceptions of service quality. If customers perceive good service quality, their satisfaction level may be enhanced and loyalty may be maintained. Increasing customer satisfaction can reduce customers' switching behavior, and this may enhance service performance (Rodoula, 2010). Therefore, to meet or exceed the customers' expectations of service delivery, it is imperative for service firms (e.g., commercial banks) to seek ways to motivate frontline employees to exhibit organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) (Yang, 2012). If the employees exhibit extra-role behaviors (e.g., OCB), consumers will generate person-to-person trust, and this may enhance customers' loyalty (Sun & Lin, 2010). Employees with high levels of OCBs are willing to get more involved in the organization (Chen, Hui & Sego, 1998). In the study by Jain (2009), job satisfaction, personal effectiveness, reputational effectiveness, sense of accomplishment and contribution, botheration free existence and vertical trust were found positively predicted by different dimensions of OCBs. Some other outcome variables like career orientation, perceived job mobility, turnover intentions, work recognition and organizational commitment were also found to be significantly predicted by OCBs (Jain, 2009). The study by Moideenkutty, Blau, Kumar & Nalakath (2005) found that managerial evaluations of employee performance are affected by both objective productivity and organizational citizenship behavior. In their study, while objective productivity alone accounted for nine percent of the variance in subjective performance, objective productivity and organizational citizenship behavior together accounted for 41 percent of the variance. Thus, OCB has positive relationship with varied individual and organizational variables.

Review of Literature

OCB may be described as behaviors that (a) goes beyond the basic requirements of the job, (b) is to a large extent discretionary, and (c) is of benefit to the organization (Lambert, 2000). By discretionary behavior is meant that the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job description, that is, the clearly specifiable terms of the person's employment contract with the organization; the behavior is rather a matter of personal choice (Organ, 1997). Examples of these efforts include cooperation with peers, performing extra duties without complaint, punctuality, volunteering and helping others, using time efficiently, conserving resources, sharing ideas and positively representing the organization (Turnipseed & Rassuli, 2005). Organ (1988) highlights five specific categories of discretionary behavior which are altruism (welfare), courtesy, conscientiousness (compliance), sportsmanship and civic virtue. Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach (2000) presented seven common themes or dimensions on OCB: Helping behavior, sportsmanship, organizational loyalty, organizational compliance, individual initiative, civic virtue, and self development. A meta-analysis by Podsakoff et al. (2000) showed that helping behavior increases moral cohesiveness and belonging sense of a team which results into high performance and low turnover inside the organization. Sun, Aryee & Law (2007) argue that high-performance HRM practices can shape positive psychological climate perceptions of employees since such practices would send a signal of long-term investment in employee competence, helping create shared employee perceptions of a supportive organizational context that encourages OCB. When employees evaluate their work environments in a positive way, they tend to enhance their identification with their jobs and organizations, and thus are more likely to display extra-role behaviors that are beneficial for their employers (Wei, Han & Hsu, 2010). Akinyemi (2012) found significant relationship between climate and OCB. …

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