Academic journal article Education

A Profile of the Patients at the Hearing and Speech Clinic from 2009 to 2014: A Retrospective Study

Academic journal article Education

A Profile of the Patients at the Hearing and Speech Clinic from 2009 to 2014: A Retrospective Study

Article excerpt

Literature Review

There is growing evidence that there are similarities and differences between the types and percentages of communication disorders seen by specialists in different countries around the world over the patients' life spans. To illustrate, a number of studies have reported the types and percentages of language disorders in children. For example, Tomblin et al. investigated kindergarten children and indicated that the prevalence of specific language impairment was 7.4%, with a higher prevalence in males (8%) than in females (6%) (Tomblin, Records, Buckwalter, Zhang, Smith, & O'Brien, 1997). Moreover, according to the Canadian Association of Speech Language Pathologists and Audiologists (CASLPA), the prevalence of language impairment is 2-5% in very young children and 5-10% in 5-19 year old individuals (CASLPA, 2005). Furthermore, it is estimated that the prevalence of aphasia in the developed world is 0.1-0.4% (Code & Petheram, 2011).

There have also been reports on the demographic and clinical characteristics of speech sound disorders in different age groups. For example, the prevalence of phonological disorders in children has been reported as 9.17% (Cavalheiro, Brancalioni, & Keske-Soares, 2012). In another study, the prevalence of speech sound disorders was 1.06% in primary school age children, with a higher ratio of males compared to females (2.85:1; McKinnon, McLeod, & Reilly, 2007). Furthermore, it was reported that the prevalence of articulation disorders among adults was 3% (Alaraifi, Amayreh, & Saleh, 2014).

A number of studies have also reported data on the prevalence of voice disorders in different age groups. For example, study of primary school children indicated that the prevalence of voice disorders was 0.12%; what is more, there were 12 males with voice disorders for every female with voice disorders (McKinnon, McLeod, & Reilly, 2007). In addition, the CASLP stated that the prevalence of voice disorders is 6% in children and adolescents, 1-6% in adults, and over 6% in the elderly.

A number of studies have also reported the prevalence of stuttering and cluttering over the life span. According to Craig et al., the prevalence of stuttering across all age groups is 0.72%. Furthermore, the prevalence of stuttering in children ranged from 1.4% to 1.44%; the prevalence was 0.53% in adolescents, 0.78% in adults, and 0.37% in the elderly. In addition, there was a higher ratio of stuttering in males compared to females (Craig, Hancock, Tran, Craig, & Peters, 2002). According to the CASLPA, 2-5% of children stutter, while 4-8% of individuals aged 5-19 years stutter. There is a 1% prevalence rate of stuttering in adults and the elderly (CASLPA, 2005) St. Louis, Bakker, Myers, and Raphael (2014) reported that Becker and Grundmannin (1970) indicated that the prevalence of cluttering in school age children was 1.8% (St. Louis, Bakker, Myers, & Raphael, 2014). There are also studies that have reported that cluttering is observed more in males than in females (Curlee, 1996).

Additionally, a number of studies reported the prevalence of dysphagia in the general population. For example, the Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine (2010) reported that the prevalence of dysphasia in the society is 7-22%. According to Sura et al., there is no estimate of the prevalence of dysphagia in the general population. However, the prevalence rate of dysphagia among the elderly population is 15% (Sura, Madhavan, Carnaby, & Crary, 2012).

A number of studies have also examined the prevalence of speech and language disorders in patients at speech and hearing university clinics. For instance, Garcia, Garrett, Pimentel, and Garcia (2002) reported the results from a survey that examined aphasia management by university speech and hearing clinics in the United States. The number of individuals who were assessed or treated for aphasia at the 126 participating clinics was between 1% and 22% of the total number of patients seen at those clinics each semester. …

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