Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

Mind: Vol. 124, No. 496, October 2015

Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics

Mind: Vol. 124, No. 496, October 2015

Article excerpt

Hume and the Independent Witnesses, ARIF AHMED

The Humean argument concerning miracles says that one should always think it more likely that anyone who testifies to a miracle is lying or deluded than that the alleged miracle actually occurred, and so should always reject any single report of it. A longstanding and widely accepted objection is that even if this is right, the concurring and noncollusive testimony of many witnesses should make it rational to believe in whatever miracle they all report. This paper argues that on the contrary, even multiple reports from noncollusive witnesses lack the sort of independence that could make trouble for Hume.

Distributive Equality, DAVID MCCARTHY

Egalitarians think that equality in the distribution of goods somehow matters. But what exactly is egalitarianism? This article argues for a characterization based on novel principles essentially involving risk. The characterization is then used to resolve disputed questions about egalitarianism. These include: the way egalitarianism is concerned with patterns, in particular its relationship to strong separability; the relationship between egalitarianism and other distributive views, such as concerns with fairness and with giving priority to the worse off; and the relationship between egalitarianism and evaluative measurement. But egalitarianism is subject to a particularly severe form of the levelling-down objection, and is claimed to be false.

Lessons from Descriptive Indexicals, KJELL JOHAN SAEBO

Two main methods for analysing de re readings of definite descriptions in intensional contexts coexist: that of evaluating the description in the actual world, whether by means of scope, actuality operators, or nonlocal world binding, and that of substituting another description, usually one expressing a salient or "vivid" acquaintance relation to an attitude holder, prior to evaluation. …

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