Academic journal article Education

Citizenship among a Sample of Hearing and Hearing Impaired Kindergarten's Children in Al-Riyadh-Saudi Arabia "Comparative Study"

Academic journal article Education

Citizenship among a Sample of Hearing and Hearing Impaired Kindergarten's Children in Al-Riyadh-Saudi Arabia "Comparative Study"

Article excerpt

Introduction

Caring about childhood and the development of citizenship among children are basic societal concerns. As confirmed by Asad (1999) and Leonard (2007) that values on which children grow are more stable. Several studies were conducted due to developments in childs' rights movements (Hill & Tisdall, 1997, Franklin, 1995; Roche, 1992). Some studies focused on poor children, victims of maltreatment (Stalford, 2000; Alston, 1994, Freeman & Veeman, 1992). Despite the importance of citizenship in early childhood, studies addressing this concept are scarce as noted by Arieh & Boyer (2005) where they ascertain little interest in citizenship and its application in childs' lives. This is also true for Arab societies where scarcity of literature and previous studies addressing citizenship concept among children was noticed, particularly in Saudi context.

Childhood is one of the important stages for instilling concepts, cognitions, and values related to citizenship. Its installation in this important stage and raising children on it make it an important element in child's personal construction and future behavior. Citizenship has received increased interest during the second half of the 20th century. That's due to the appearance of human movements calling for human rights and the importance of child's participation in society (Al--Sagheer, 2012).

Citizenship is the participation with full membership in a country with regional boundaries (Alston, 1994). It is loyalty and belongingness to the state in which an individual lives as well participating in a positive manner. Members care about country problems, ways to solve them, preceding social relations between the individuals and other society members in the past and in the future (Ahmad, 2006).

Educators emphasize that developing citizenship values among children is one of the most important methods in facing the 21st century challenges where the country real advancement under the new century challenges, is the classification factor of its people minds and arms. Therefore, giving children citizenship values is the basic building block for positive and effective participation in social, economical and political development (AbdelBaset, 2009). Shakeb (2002) stressed that true belonging to religion and state makes the individual feels tranquility and stability, whereas loosing this feeling will affect country's political, social and cultural status.

Despite researchers' interest in studying citizenship, there is still a lack of studies addressing citizenship among children less than five years ago (Clough & Nutbrown, 2004; MacArthur, 2001; Comoldi, 1998; Croll & Moses, 2000). Reviewing theoretical frames and previous studies on the concept of citizenship among special needs in general and hearing disabled, in particular, and at all age stages including childhood, the researchers noticed the paucity of such studies (Al-Saghear, 2012;; Al-Jeijawi & Al-Madhoon, 2008).

Statement of the problem

Citizenship plays an important role in deepening loyalty belonging and, connections between the child and his country. Despite its importance in early childhood, the researchers noticed paucity in research studies that addressed citizenship concept among special needs individuals, in general, and hearing impaired children in particular at all age stages including early childhood. The importance of childhood period that constitutes the basis for building and shaping individuals, where in introductory steps to prepare and qualify them, to acquire citizenship encourages the researchers to find out an answer for a crucial question which is trying to find out if there are any statistically significant differences between hearing impaired and hearing kindergarten's children in Saudi Arabia in terms of citizenship (National, family -social, informational and school-social belongings).

The following sub questions were derived from the main question:

1. …

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