Academic journal article European Research Studies

Role of State in Formation and Development of Tourist Cluster

Academic journal article European Research Studies

Role of State in Formation and Development of Tourist Cluster

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

The industry of tourism possesses a very strong multiplier effect and provides significant positive influence, as compared to other economic sectors. That's why most of countries of the world chose tourism as a means for generation and quickening of economic development, improvement of currency state of country, and strengthening of tourism infrastructure. Despite the fact that recently the state has been paying a lot of attention to the sphere of tourism, it is still characterized by high risk and insufficient level of development.

The Russian Federation occupies a very strong position in the market of international tourism; in 2012, Russia entered the top-10 countries as to the number of tourist arrivals, showing a serious double-digit rate of growth of this indicator (13.4%), and ranked 5th as to tourists' expenditures. In 2012, 4.8% of the global tourist flow accounted for Russia. At that, the volume of revenues from tourism also rose over 3 years, but insignificantly (by 1.2%).

Under the current conditions, creation and development of tourist clusters in regions is one of the main mechanisms of the increase of competitiveness of regional economy. At that, the use of cluster approach in management of regional economy is the most important direction of policy of the range of subjects of the Russian Federation. Transition from ineffective economic development of regions to mobilization and stimulation of existing resources for economic growth showed the most perspective solutions in the process of formation and development of tourist clusters. It is obvious that development of tourist sphere requires the use of complex approach and complex analysis which could be implemented through clustering of the sphere.

2. The State of Tourist Sphere in Russia and Necessity for its Clustering

According to the Federal Tourism Agency, Fig.1 shows the dynamics of the number of inbound and outbound tourists in Russia for 2006-2014. In 2014, around 17.6 million people left Russia for tourism, while the number of inbound tourists constituted 2.6 million people. In 2009-2013, there was a growth of the number of inbound and outbound tourists. There was a reduction of these indicators in 2014 by 3% and 4%, correspondingly, which was caused by sanctions from the Western countries and depreciation of ruble, which, without any doubt, weakened the Russian tourist industry by the end of the year.

In Russia, outbound tourism develops with higher rates than inbound one (Fig. 2). Outbound tourist flow was growing constantly in 2000-2008 and in 2009 it showed significant reduction, which was explained by the global financial crisis. However, in 2010, the growth rate constituted 132%, which was by 11% more than the growth rate in 2008. The dynamics of inbound tourism is not stable, as its indicators rise and fall. In 2009, due to the global crisis, the number of foreign tourists who visited Russia reduced as compared to previous years (Koroleva N.V., 2013). In 2010-2013, there was a positive tendency of inbound tourist flow, though the growth rates were still low--only 102% in 2010, 109% in 2011, 110% in 2012, and 104% in 2013.

Excess of outbound international tourism over inbound one was observed since 1996, but back then the difference was much lower than now. The rapid growth began starting from 2009. As a result of the conducted research, it is possible to state that the main problems of tourist sphere in Russia are the following: disunity of tourist market members, underdevelopment of infrastructure, lack of investments, deficit of highly-qualified staff, low level of service, high accommodation prices, etc. these problems are to be solved quickly, effectively, and in complex. The development of the tourist sphere should be conducted with the help of complex approach and complex analysis, which can be realized through clustering and with direct participation of the state. …

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