Academic journal article Education

Parental Attitudes and Their Relationship to Citizenship among Kindergarten's Children in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

Academic journal article Education

Parental Attitudes and Their Relationship to Citizenship among Kindergarten's Children in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

Article excerpt

Introduction

Family is the mediator that has been termed community to meet the natural and social motivations of the child, and the basic component of his character. The child's well alignment with his environment depends on it. And through the family, the child learns behavioral patterns that he follow in his life, and he has the means to achieve his compatibility within and out the family (Ismael, 1987). So, the family socializes the child through control reward and punishment operations.

Through socialization the individual suites his behavior to conform with the expectations of group to which he belongs (Soltan, 2009) and to maintain the survival and continuity of society and achieving balance and cohesion in an environment charged with changes and successive developments (Hamshari, 2003(. It relocates the individual from organism to a social being and a mature individual understands the meaning of and how to borne social responsibility, and to be capable to control his emotions and satisfying his needs (Al Sharbini & Sadeq, 2000, Al Kadari, 2002).

Socialization represents the individual's interaction process with his environment, where his character constructed and grew, and merge with the group (Al Rashdan, 2005 ).This means that socialization concerns with both sides of social and emotional live of child and young (Al Nashef, 2007). As the socialization process exacted the interaction and exchange between the individual and the group, and not surrender and docile cultural and social systems in the community, it viewed as a two-dimensional process: social and subjective, where what society wants from the child/young interact with what the child/young needs from society (Hamshari, 2003). Badran & Mahfodh (1998) identify the social dimension of socialization by individual's merging process with the community and engagement with its activities. However, they identify the subjective (anthropological) dimension by the process of instilling the necessary skills and attitudes among individual to perform the required roles. On this basis, socialization can be seen as a process of learning and adaptation at the same time.

Socialization is done by several institutions: family, kindergarten, school, peers, places of worship and media institutions .Family is the most prominent of these institutions in the lives of children and in all their various life stages, where parental upbringing ways consider as an observer on other upbringing methods (Al Shenawi & Abu Alrob, 2002; Al Sharbini & Sadeq, 2000). Family is considered as an important resource to satisfy the need of the child for security, confidence and emotional relationships, and formation of satisfaction and stability experiences (Al Nashef, 2007). Olwani (1997) considers family as a social task and religious responsibility for parents ends with shifting the individual to an active member in his community. Hamshari, (2003) & Al Eysawi, (1995) agreed that the patterns used by parents in the upbringing of their children has a role in the positive or negative formation of the children. In the positive formation, the abilities and personalities of children are growing together, and achieved security, stability and success for them, while the negative formation leads some children's personalities to confusion, deviation or failure. Consequently, parental upbringing ways are varying from one society to another, and among different families and groups.

Using the term of "parental attitudes" was commonly in socialization as an expression of motivational, emotional and cognitive processes system directed to the ways of parents' treatment for their children in their life situations, and as an indication for parental care patterns oriented to the behavior of children and parents. These directions are considered optional and subjective, and affected by parents' personality pattern. They are also affected by their scientific, social and economic level, their understandings of the nature of childhood, family relationships interactions and the characteristics of the child/young, as well as the community's culture and civilization (Al Nashef, 2007; Al Rashdan, 2005; Al Kitani, 2000). …

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