Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

A Motion-Sensing Game-Based Therapy to Foster the Learning of Children with Sensory Integration Dysfunction

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

A Motion-Sensing Game-Based Therapy to Foster the Learning of Children with Sensory Integration Dysfunction

Article excerpt

Introduction

The prevalence of children with sensory integration dysfunction (SID, also known as Sensory Processing Disorder, SPD) is increasing, and has caught the attention of medical professionals, parents and educational researchers (Lee & Chuang, 2013). SID is a neurological disorder in which the brain is unable to accurately process certain information received through the senses, and thus sufferers may have behavioral disorders resulting from complex multifaceted problems. However, it is not a disease that leads to brain damage or brain deterioration, and therefore neurological specialists usually are unable to effectively identify children with this condition (Ayres & Robbins, 2005). The current clinical identification of SID can be categorized into four patterns: "Visual perception and Auditory-Language Disorders," "Tactile Defensiveness," "Disorders involving the Vestibular System," and "Developmental Dyspraxia." While children with SID (CwSID) may not have all the symptoms of a certain dysfunction, they usually have several symptoms of these four patterns (Ayres & Robbins, 2005; Kranowitz & Miller, 2006; Miller & Fuller, 2007).

Ayres (1972) indicated that the human sensory integration system starts developing during the embryo stage, while the sensory integration capability evolves slowly in daily life with sports, games and other activities during one's infancy and the primary stage of childhood. Ayres not only identified the syndromes of SID, but also the relationship between learning and sensory integrative functions. In a study sponsored by the Valentine-Kline Foundation, Ayres (1976) accomplished three objectives: exploring the relationships among academic, intellectual, language and sensory integrative functions; determining the distribution of different types of disorders and the significance of these to academic learning; and exploring the efficacy of therapeutic procedures. For the first time in occupational therapy the role of the vestibular system in learning disabilities was clarified. The neurophysiologic literature later delineated different functional areas which manifest apraxia, including postural dyspraxia, motor sequencing deficits, dyspraxia on verbal command, oral dyspraxia, and constructional dyspraxia. Ayres (1985) further connected praxis and language by stating that the former is to the physical world what speech is to the social world, because both enable interactions and transactions, and some aspects of speech and language comprehension may be closely related, even dependent upon, the development of praxis. Moreover, both praxis and language require cognitive functions of ideation and concept formation, both require integration of sensory input and both require planning that enables motor expression. As speech and language comprehension is highly related to the learning process, CwSID will have more problems in adapting to the learning environment if they also have dyspraxia, and thus finding an effective therapy to train CwSID and improve their sensory integrative ability will promote their learning performance. The connection between SID and academic performance in a technology-enhanced learning environment can also be illustrated by our modified pyramid of learning, adapted from Williams and Shellenberger (1996), as shown in Figure 1, in which many elements discussed above serve as important building blocks of academic learning.

In the 1990's the primary instrument for identification of SID was the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989). SIPT includes measures of tactile and vestibular-proprioceptive processing, measures of form and space perception and visual-motor coordination, measures of praxis, and measures of bilateral integration and sequencing. Examiners who administer the SIPT must be carefully trained by the organization Sensory Integration International, and have extensive experience in pediatrics. While there are other tools, e. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.