Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Construction of Multi-Mode Affective Learning System: Taking Affective Design as an Example

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Construction of Multi-Mode Affective Learning System: Taking Affective Design as an Example

Article excerpt


In recent years, the prevalence of smart devices demonstrates a lifestyle associated with computers in modern society. Regarding different types of program, besides functions, humanity is also critical. The most significant difference between human beings, computers, and machines is that human beings have emotion. Therefore, in order to reinforce the humanity of computers and machines, they should approach human emotion in order to provide proper feedback. With the popularity of the internet, non-simultaneous distant instruction gradually replaces traditional instruction. Emotion is part of the key semantic information of interpersonal relationships. Positive emotion leads to more successful learning processes (Ezhilarasi & Minu, 2012; Eyharabide & Amandi, 2012). Instructional systems can automatically recognize a learners' emotion and provide proper feedback, thus, it is a significantly potential and essential research indicator (Islam, 2013).

With the prevalence of online learning, if computers can recognize learners' learning emotion and maintain their position emotion, it will result in learning efficiency and effectiveness (Kerr, Rynearson, & Kerr, 2006). In interpersonal interaction, conversation and facial expression are the most direct methods to recognize others' emotions; however, people can disguise these two emotions. Therefore, aside from introducing semantic and facial expression emotional recognition, this study measures learners' physical signals as indicators of emotional judgments. Since physical signals are non-volitional physical reactions, the emotional state is the most objective. The introduction of multi-mode Affective Computing can enhance the precision rate of emotional recognition in Affective Tutoring Systems.

This study applies Affective Computing, as developed by the laboratory, to research the findings and development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Through developed Affective Tutoring Systems, it expands different dimensions and functions. The purpose is to strengthen learners' trust and involvement in learning by a more advanced and complete emotion recognition module. By complete and effective assessment, it demonstrates the value and existence of this study.

Literature review

Affective tutoring systems

Changes of technology are rapid and important, and various kinds of digital technologies and techniques are gradually introduced to instructional environments. As the traditional teachers' one-to-many instruction model changes, learning models have become diverse (Chen, Kao, & Sheu, 2003). ITS (Intelligent Tutoring Systems) means to provide personalized instruction by computer analysis or direct feedback to students. ITS finishes different instructional tasks by simulating teachers. According to different students' characteristics and states, it indicates various instructional methods. Affective Computing is a research field that deals with issues of emotions and computers. Generally speaking, it is classified into four research levels: emotional recognition, emotional expression, having emotion, and emotional intelligence. Most studies focused on emotional recognition (Picard & Klein, 2002).


Technology introduction reinforces class activities. In addition, teachers can observe the negotiation, communication, cooperation, and interaction among students (Liaw, Chen & Huang, 2008; Infante et al., 2009; Martin, Pastore, & Snider, 2012). However, without an appropriate learning strategy, learning effectiveness will not be as expected (Peng et al., 2009). ATS (Affective Tutoring Systems) means the defection of students' learning and emotional states to offer proper emotional feedback and regulate students' learning emotion (Mao & Li, 2010; Hsu, Lin, Lin, & Lin, 2014). ATS is developed upon ITS, and aims to effectively adapt to students' emotion by simulating human beings (Ammar, Neji, Alimi, & Gouarderes, 2010; Lin, Wang, Chao, & Chien, 2012). …

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