Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Academic Achievements and Satisfaction of the Clicker-Aided Flipped Business English Writing Class

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Academic Achievements and Satisfaction of the Clicker-Aided Flipped Business English Writing Class

Article excerpt


The new century is witnessing a substantial change in pedagogical innovation, among which the flipped classroom has been catching public attention. The flipped classroom flipped the teaching process where the delivered contents conducted in traditional class were moved outside class. In-class activities which needed the peer collaboration guided by the teacher in the flipped class were conducted before and after the traditional class (Ojalvo & Doyne, 2011). The flipped classrooms required students to learn and internalize the knowledge by watching videos and reading other related lecturing materials provided by the teacher before they physically entered the class to share difficulties, questions, and other unsolved problems with peers and the teacher. The teacher also encouraged learners to participate in in-class activities such as group discussion, academic presentation and gaming so that the class functioned as a platform for peer discussion and problem solving (Triantafyllou & Timcenko, 2014). Most of the studies on flipped classrooms could not achieve success without the aid of information technologies. This study, aiming to study flipped classrooms aided with clicker system--a frequently used information technology, is therefore meaningful and progressive.

Literature review

Satisfaction of the flipped classroom

A great number of studies focus on the satisfaction of information technology aided flipped classrooms (ITFC). ITFC could improve learners' satisfaction and enhance their self-efficacy; hence they tended to hold positive attitudes towards the flipped classroom. The flipped classroom could satisfy learners because it was proved effective in engaging students, and could improve their self-efficacy in independent knowledge learning (Enfield, 2013). The flipped model was effective in learning and thus satisfactory to students. Under the flipped model, students' attendance improved with more efforts paid (Chen et al., 2014). Through a survey and some interviews, it was found that most of the students positively assessed the flipped classroom because of its easiness to pause, rewind, and review lectures, together with encouraged self-directed learning and improved instructor availability (Schultz et al., 2014).

Moreover, students who enrolled in information literacy competency and critical thinking also reported that not only students but also teachers positively evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, which was identified through semi-structured interviews (Kong, 2014). The flipped classroom also enhanced learner empowerment, development, and engagement (McLaughlin et al., 2013). And students thought that the self-learning before class obviously improved in-class learning activities. Many students such as those enrolling in undergraduate nutrition courses preferred the flipped classroom to the traditional one (Gilboy, Heinerichs, & Pazzaglia, 2015).

Flipped classrooms could strongly motivate learners to join learning activities (Tune et al., 2013), so that learners tended to be satisfied with the flipped method (Pierce & Fox, 2013). Students who enrolled in statistics course were also satisfied with the flipped teaching model (Wilson, 2013), and students and faculty both believed the flipped model was satisfactory (Gilboy, Heinerichs, & Pazzaglia, 2015). Combining flipped pedagogic model with online NextGenU courses was also satisfactory in terms of public health higher education, where despite that students obtained the same learning outcomes, the flipped classroom received more satisfaction than the traditional one (Galway et al., 2014).

Academic achievements of the flipped classroom

The recent decade has witnessed many studies on the flipped classroom (Moffett & Mill, 2014), where the majority advocated the flipped classroom and thus the flipped innovations has been widely accepted especially in primary and secondary education (Slomanson, 2014). …

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