Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Risks in the Sphere of Social-Labor Relations on the Municipal Level

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Risks in the Sphere of Social-Labor Relations on the Municipal Level

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

The first decades of the XXI century, while being contradictive, shook the foundations of the world order established previously and highlighted the attractiveness of the model of a socially oriented market economy, which integrates both the free market component in the form of effective distribution of production factors based on the different forms of ownership, and the welfare component in the form of elevated level and quality of life of the population (Shenayev, 2004, p.32). Implementation of such a model encourages government institutions of developed and developing countries on the one hand to solve a complex of economic problems related to strengthening and development of the market economy system, and on the other hand to keep in sight solutions of social problems, including those existing in the sphere of social-labor relations.

Development of social-labor relations implies addressing such issues as regulation of labor market, (un)employment, formation and practicing of social partnership, social security programs, welfare benefits, stabilization and growth of the level and the quality of life of the population, etc. Formation and establishment of social-labor relations is carried out on the levels of both national and municipal economies. While the legal regulation of social-labor relations is done predominantly on the national level, the practical implementation of the entire complex of social-labor relations is carried out at the places where people live and work, which is to say on the municipal level.

Formation and development of social-labor relations on the municipal level are influenced by a significant number of diverse factors, such as implemented social policy, unfolding globalization of the world economy, development of labor division and cooperation, which unavoidably lead to emergence of certain threats to their normal functioning. This preconditions the presence of risks in the social-labor relations on the municipal level. At the same time, the issues of risks in social-labor relations along with the ways to manage them, especially on the municipal level, have received little coverage in the literature. This is illustrated by the fact that there is no single understanding of the esstence of social-labor relations and their system.

This article attempts to answer the following questions: How can the system of social-labor relations be described? What factors have an impact on formation and development of social-labor relations on the municipal level, most notably in Russia? What are the risks in the sphere of social-labor relations? What are the possible approaches towards risk management in the sphere of social-labor relations?

2. METHODS

Literature on the issues of organization of labor and labor relations uses two terms, "labor relations" and "social-labor relations". Analysis of the phenomenon of labor in the light of social and historical development of a society demonstrates that there are two opposing approaches towards understanding of the essence of labor. Anatoly Shkurkin suggests that the first approach has brought together a group of scholars who perceive labor as "a burdensome duty of an individual", while the second one unites scholars who see it as "a source of creativity and personal development" (Shurkin, 1998, p.122-123). It is fair to assume that consideration of labor as "a burdensome duty of an individual" led to formation of image of labor relations in the narrow understanding, simply as relations functioning on the labor market. Probably since those times when labor started to be understood as "a source of creativity and development of an individual" there came to exist preconditions of formation of the term "social-labor relations". The following definition of the term "labor relations" can be given as an example of the first approach: these are "such kind of social relations, which mediate non-independent, primarily hired labor" (Textbook on the course of the Russian labor law, 1996, p. …

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