Academic journal article Military Review

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons

Academic journal article Military Review

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons

Article excerpt

THE EVOLUTION OF CYBER WAR

International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons

Brian M. Mazanec, Potomac Books, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2015, 352 pages

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This book looks at the development of norms for cyber war: what should be fair game and what is not? How do these norms emerge, and what is the process of developing these norms?

The author, Brian Mazanec, lays out his "norm evolution theory" in an analytical framework that considers actors, motives, and other material and nonmaterial factors. His theory indicates that the development of norms goes through three stages: norm emergence (where the norm comes into existence), norm cascade (a tipping point where the norm's international adoption accelerates), and norm internalization (where states and actors accept it).

Mazanec applies this framework to three historical case studies: the development and accepted use of chemical and biological warfare, strategic bombing, and nuclear weapons. In each of his three case studies, he closely examines the impact of the variables during each of the three stages. He devotes a separate chapter to each of the three case studies. At the end of each chapter, he includes a summarization table that indicates which factors were of greater significance in developing the norms. …

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