Academic journal article Indian Journal of Community Psychology

A Comparative Study of Depression and Psychological Well-Being of Coronary Heart Disease Patients

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Community Psychology

A Comparative Study of Depression and Psychological Well-Being of Coronary Heart Disease Patients

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Cardiovascular diseases have been gaining importance in India recently because of increased incidence of the disease. Cardiovascular disease is currently the leading cause of death in both urban and rural India. It is the first among top 5 causes of deaths in Indian population (rural vs. urban, economically backward vs. developed states, men vs. women and at all stages vs. middle age). In 2000, there were an estimated 29.8 million people with CHD in India out of a total estimated population of 1.03 billion, or a nearly 3% overall prevalence3, According to World Bank estimates, The death rate due to heart attack will be 295 per 1,00,000 population in the year 2016. Cardiovascular disease will account for 33.5% of total deaths by the year 2016. A number of studies have been conducted time and again to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Despite technological and other advancements, Life has become so complicated that a strain free life cannot be thought of. To put it simply, tension and stresses are the boon of present era. This creates various psychological problems in individual's life such as anxiety, depression etc.

Depression is quickly becoming the leading cause of years of life lived with disability worldwide (A.D. Lopez, 2006) and has particularly large impact on compromised health when comorbid with a chronic medical disorder (S. Moussavi, S. Chatteiji, 2007). Over the past 40 years, more than 60 prospective studies have examined the link between established indices of depression and prognosis in individuals with known coronary heart disease (Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, 2006). Depression itself refers to a heterogeneous set of phenomenon ranging from simple mood swings to severe affective state. Depression is more than just a low mood --it's a serious illness. While we all feel sad, moody or low from time to time, some people experience these feelings intensely, for a long time and often without reason. People with depression find it hard to function every day and may be reluctant to participate in activities they once enjoyed. Depression is one of the most common of all mental health problems. Depressive symptoms also are thought to increase the risk of further heart problems. One in five people experience depression at some stage of their lives. Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients may experience anxiety and uncertainty, frequently accompanied by symptoms of severe depression (Forrester AW, 1992). Clinical depression is relatively common in patients with CHD, with estimates of 15% to 20% of cardiac patients meeting criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and an additional 20% reporting elevated depressive symptoms (Thombs, Bush DE et al, 2006). McGee, H. M. et al (2006), highlighted the complexity of the link between depression and heart problems. Previous studies also have found that depression is a strong predictor of future heart disease in healthy people. Lett, H. S. et al, (2004) concluded that depressions can double the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, due to a number of plausible reasons such as lifestyle risk factors and differences in the nervous system. Depression has yet to be established as an independent risk factor for CHD (Amanda Nicholson, 2006; Karina Davidson, 2012).

Psychological well-being is defined as states that emerge from feeling of satisfaction with one's close interpersonal relationships and with one's occupation and financial situation (Bar-On, 2005). "Well being is a positive and sustainable condition that allows individuals, groups or nations to thrive and flourish." Huppert, Baylis & Keverne (2005). Well being requires an integrated approach, one that embraces mind body, society, and the environment. Psychological well-being is a malleable concept which is concerned with individual's feelings about his daily life experiences. Psychological well being refers to one's positive sense of subjective well being. …

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