Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Research on the Demand for Parking Lots of Shopping Centres

Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Research on the Demand for Parking Lots of Shopping Centres

Article excerpt

JEL Classification: C300, R520.

Introduction

A high level of car ownership in large cities of Lithuania caused a great shortage of parking spaces in multi-storey housing areas. The car ownership level in Klaipeda is 506 cars/1,000 inhabitants, in Kaunas--547, in Siauliai--490, in Panevezys--528 and in Vilnius--474 (see Fig. 1). More and more residential districts face a problem of the abundance of cars standing right beside residential houses. This is dangerous from the road safety point of view as they block the driveways, sidewalks and green spaces, and considerably worsens the quality of life for local residents. One of the ways to reduce the demand for parking lots in urbanized areas is to use the parking lots of adjacent shopping centres.

Construction of the shopping centres was encouraged by the growth of economy in the cities of Lithuania over the recent decades. In 1995, the first shopping centres were opened in large Lithuanian cities the majority of which were built in peripheral zones of the city. This ensured good accessibility, variety of goods and services, free parking of cars. The development of shopping centres in a periphery satisfied the needs of investors--to acquire cheaper land, uncomplicated design and construction, quick payback of investments. A transport infrastructure was erected--streets and pedestrian paths were built (Burinskiene & Munch, 2003).

The largest construction of shopping centres in Vilnius took place in 2000-2010 when their number increased three times. Based on data of 2014, the total area of shopping centres in Vilnius amounted to more than 400 thousand square meters. Based on the Lithuanian Construction Technical Regulation (STR) the shopping centre shall ensure the minimum number of parking spaces, 20 [m.sup.2] area of the shopping shall be accommodated with 1 parking space (Zagorskas & Palevicius, 2011).

Unlike the laws in many other countries, the laws of Lithuania allow to build shopping centres of various size in residential districts. At night, parking lots near those shopping centres are almost empty, whereas, the residents of adjacent multi-storey houses lack parking spaces near their houses. Our aim is to develop an evaluation system of shopping centre parking lots, which would enable to solve problems related to the lack of parking spaces near multi-storey houses.

Intensive use of the parking lots of shopping centres will allow reducing the number of parking spaces in the urbanized areas, to release the multi-storey residential areas from the chaotically parked cars and to create favourable and safe conditions for pedestrians, public transport and service vehicles.

1. Literature Review

The literature review of the shopping centre parking's lots is divided into two groups. In the first group the scientific work is overviewed and in the second group--pilot projects.

1.1 The Scientific Works

The scientists from Netherlands made the research--Is parking supply related to the turnover of shopping areas? (Mingardo & Van Meerkerk, 2012). For the research purposes they selected 80 parking lots of shopping centres and determined that the size of parking lot has no effect on the turnover of the shopping centre. However, the most important factors are quantity and quality of the shops, visitor-friendliness, location and accessibility.

The Scottish scientist, analysing the relative importance of nine agglomeration format characteristics on the attractiveness of shopping malls and shopping streets, found out that retail tenant mix and atmosphere has the highest relative importance. He concluded also that parking does not seem "to provide potential to change the attractiveness of the investigated agglomeration factors" (Teller, 2008).

The Australian scientist raised five hypotheses: 1) Consumers will rate parking and access convenience as an important determinant of where they choose to shop; 2) Consumers will rate parking and access as important irrespective of age, income or gender; 3) Consumers will perceive malls as offering better access and parking convenience than strips; 4) Parking and access convenience will influence retail centre preference; 5) Parking and access convenience will influence consumers most frequented retail format. …

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