Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Pharmacy Student Learning during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in Relation to the Cape 2013 Outcomes

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Pharmacy Student Learning during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in Relation to the Cape 2013 Outcomes

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes have guided pharmacy curriculum design, implementation and assessment since 1992, with the most recent iteration released in 2013. (1) Since their inception, the CAPE outcomes have been a key resource for colleges and schools, faculty members, and preceptors when considering terminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes pharmacy graduates must possess. The revision process of the CAPE outcomes seeks to identify and include contemporary and emerging issues in pharmacy education so that the pharmacy profession may meet current and future health care needs. The CAPE outcomes are intended to be achievable by the conclusion of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program, and measureable within practice environments. Since the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the curriculum is the culmination of a professional program, it represents the final phase in which achievement of CAPE outcomes occur. Further, the American Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) chose to adopt, without modification, the CAPE 2013 outcomes as the educational outcomes of focus for the latest revision of its Accreditation Standards for Doctor of Pharmacy Programs. (2,3) More emphasis is now placed on assessment of student achievement of CAPE outcomes, (2) which requires thoughtful design and measurement.

Promoting the scholarship of teaching and learning is important for the advancement of academic missions. Experiential education has been capturing representative terminal assessments of curricular outcomes through publications for nearly two decades since conversion to the entry level PharmD program model. The CAPE outcomes have influenced the focus of experiential education during this time frame; however, it is uncertain if literature related to experiential education addresses all of the CAPE outcomes. Experiential education program design, delivery, and assessment provide an important opportunity for terminal assessment of CAPE outcomes. Understanding how extensively experiential education literature addresses CAPE outcomes may identify gaps and help the academy advance curricular initiatives. Equally important is describing the level at which achievement of educational outcomes has occurred in APPE environments, which can help refine approaches to experiential learning. A method of evaluating the effectiveness of training programs as defined by levels of learning using Kirkpatrick's hierarchy (KH) has been described. (4,5) This method of evaluating levels of learning has been applied to e-learning in pharmacy education using four general levels [(1) reaction, (2) learning, (3) behavior, and (4) results], and is applicable to experiential education as well. (6) The primary purposes of this Review are to determine the extent to which published literature involving pharmacy students on APPEs addresses the CAPE outcomes and to describe the level of learning assessments relative to KH.

METHODS

To identify keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MESH) terms related to our primary purpose, the table of contents of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, and Annals of Pharmacotherapy were reviewed for the calendar year 2012. These journals were selected to represent those likely to publish scholarly articles related to experiential teaching and learning in pharmacy. A Medline search was also performed from 1996 to 2014 using the term "experiential education and pharmacy." Article titles and abstracts for both introductory search methods were reviewed for relevance, in addition to extracting MESH headings to assist with refining search terminology. By reviewing desirable citations for common search terms, the initial MESH terms of "education, pharmacy" or "students, pharmacy" were grouped with "Experien*. mp" to broadly characterize our initial search strategy. This search strategy was first utilized in OVID for journals indexed in Medline using the time frame of 1996 to December 31, 2014 and subsequently deployed for other search engines including Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), matching the most closely related search terms within each database for relevant journals. …

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