Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Cognitive-Affective Model of Acceptance of Mobile Phone Advertising

Academic journal article E+M Ekonomie a Management

Cognitive-Affective Model of Acceptance of Mobile Phone Advertising

Article excerpt

Introduction

There are high expectations for mobile phone marketing (Yang, Kim, & Yoo, 2013). Four trends in particular contribute to the medium's marketing potential worldwide: (1) the significant growth in the use of mobile devices (Khalifa & Shen, 2008); (2) the forecasts of considerable growth in mobile advertising (MMA Mobile Marketing Association, 2012) compared to the predicted steady decline in spending on conventional media (Infoadex, 2014); (3) the development of increasingly sophisticated mobile devices (Miguel-Davila, Lopez, & De Pablos-Heredero, 2012), which has opened up new avenues and formats for marketing communication with consumers; and (4) the strong results achieved by companies with mobile marketing campaigns. In various European markets, such as the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy, these campaigns have registered response rates of up to 47% among their target audience (IAB Spain Research, 2012).

However, there is a barrier to success: getting users to agree to receive marketing actions on their mobile phones. Field studies on this topic, known as permission-based mobile marketing, are increasingly numerous and representative (Bamba & Barnes, 2007; Barwise & Strong, 2002; Carroll, Barnes, & Scornavacca, 2005; Jayawardhena, Kuckertz, Karjaluoto, & Kautonen, 2009), as are studies on the adoption of mobile technology (Lopez-Nicolas, Molina-Castillo, & Bouwman, 2008) and its use as a medium for advertising communication (Lee, Tsai, & Jih, 2006). However, the literature on the factors that determine attitudes towards and/or intention to receive mobile advertising, and on the relationships between attitude, intention and behaviour, remains minimal and contradictory (Choi, Hwang, & McMillan, 2008; Okazaki, Katsukura, & Nishiyama, 2007; Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004; Xu, 2006; Xu, Liao, & Li, 2008). Moreover, while the benefits of considering both cognitive and affective factors in order to better understand peoples' appraisals have been widely recognized in the literature (Levav & McGraw, 2009; van Waterschoot, Kumar Sinha, Van Kenhove, & De Wulf, 2008; Zielke, 2011), it is not yet known how these factors combine to influence attitudes towards mobile advertising and, thus, the intention to receive it. In this context, the first aim of this paper is to fill these gaps.

Additionally, the literature has recognized the influence of reference groups on people's attitudes, intentions and behaviour (Bagozzi, 2000; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). With regard to mobile marketing communications, authors such as (Bauer, Barnes, Reichardt, & Neumann, 2005), (Muk & Babin, 2006) and (Rohm & Sultan, 2006) have shown that reference groups can positively influence the intention to participate in mobile marketing. However, the literature has not determined how these reference groups moderate cognitive and affective factors in the formation of attitudes. The second aim of this paper is thus to answer that question.

In light of these limitations identified in the literature, we have proposed a model to meet the stated aims. The results show the advisability of treating attitudes towards mobile advertising as a two-dimensional variable including both cognitive factors (ease of use and perceived usefulness) and affective ones (positive and negative emotions). The research also shows how social influence (reference groups) moderates the effect of emotions on behaviour and how the reference group's opinion can increase the gap between attitude and behavioural intention.

The paper is divided into three parts. The first section, which focuses on the theory, reviews the literature in order to propose the research hypotheses and the conceptual model to be tested. The second section reports on an empirical study carried out according to the proposed research methodology. Finally, the third section presents the conclusions and discusses the implications for management taking into account certain limitations. …

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