Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Water Governance Model in Small City: Review at Distric Bekasi Indonesia

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Water Governance Model in Small City: Review at Distric Bekasi Indonesia

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

The enactment of the regional autonomy policy has caused a shift in stakeholders' roles in fulfilling the community's need for clean water. Prior to this regional autonomy era, through the enactment of the Law No. 5 of 1974, the central government has always played a more dominant role in many aspects, including in fulfilling the community's need for clean water. However, since the regional autonomy era, strengthened by the Law No. 23 of 2014, greater authority and responsibilities to manage and ensure the welfare of the people within their respective administrative area are assigned to regional governments. Regional governments as the party in authority are responsible for making any efforts to meet the need for clean water of the community within their own administrative area. On the other hand, the central government serve as both the facilitator and manager of water resources and they are responsible for the development of systems to supply clean water both at the national level and in the strategic areas of this nation. This is certainly encouraging a shift in the stakeholders/key players in efforts to achieve the target water-need fulfillment.

Such a shift in the stakeholders/ key players in efforts to meet the need for clean water has posed new challenges, including the overlap between the parties, less sensitivity to the issue of limited clean water which the community are experiencing and the unpreparedness of these stakeholders to undertake these responsibilities. Therefore, it is imperative to describe clearly the structure and contextual relationship between stakeholders in relation to the management of clean water. Thus, their expected role and responsibilities in sustainable clean-water fulfillment attempts can be defined clearly.

The availability of clean water in a sustainable manner is the priority of the Government, urban planners and those housing developers in order to guarantee the basic needs of the public, protect their health and improve their life standards (Hewett 2001);(WHO/UNICEF 2014), (Rimi 2016). The limited availability of clean water is getting increasingly obvious. As the socio-economic aspects and human civilization develop, the need for clean water is increasing as well, however it is not in line with the availability of clean water resources which continue to decrease as a result of climate change and pollution of surface water sources. Kodikara, Perara & Kularathana (2010) state that conflicts between key players/ stakeholders are one of the factors that worsen the performance of fulfillment of the public need for clean water. The complexity of interactions between stakeholders both in terms of their classes, sector/ area of authority or interests has triggered conflicts among these stakeholders relating to clean-water procurement attempts (Kenis 1991), (Lienert, J et al. 2013). Another study finds out that conflicts between stakeholders may arise as the preference of these stakeholders is not accommodated in the decisions or policy taken (Tompkins 2008).

Those multi-faceted problems relating to clean-water need fulfillment require a holistic approach. Traditional clean-water management approaches, which merely focus on efforts to seek new water sources have failed to resolve the current problem of clean-water unavailability so that the community's need cannot be met (Rogers 2004). Modern approaches to clean-water management to meet the community's water need are required. In these approaches, various efforts should be made such as increasing public awareness of their environment, controlling water use, improving/modifying new water sources, and minimizing conflicts among water management stakeholders (Himes 2007).

Bekasi is one of the regencies which can provide description of the complexity of stakeholders/key players in fulfilling the community's water need. The presence of PDAM as the representation of the government in attempts to meet the clean-water need in Bekasi Regency, private drinking-water supply companies (locally known as 'PAM'), the community either as individuals or in groups, and a variety of technical agencies in Bekasi Regency such as the Housing and Spatial Planning Service, the Health Service, the Highways and Water Resources Service, and Bappeda as the parties with authority over the rules and development plans of Bekasi Regency as well as other various groups are still unable to effectively meet the clean-water need of the community safely. …

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