Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Implementing the Flipped Classroom in Teacher Education: Evidence from Turkey

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Implementing the Flipped Classroom in Teacher Education: Evidence from Turkey

Article excerpt


Enhancing students' learning experiences and meeting their needs and expectations have been among the primary concerns of higher education institutions over three decades (Demirer & Sahin, 2013; Garrison & Hanuka, 2004). Therefore, extensive research has been conducted in order to investigate the ways of improving the teaching and learning environment (Biggs & Tang, 2011). Blended learning (BL) has emerged with its "potential to transform higher education institutions" to supplement the traditional classroom setting and increase the quality of student learning (Garrison & Hanuka, 2004).

Despite its growing popularity, there is not an agreed upon single definition of BL in the literature. In Singh and Reed's (2001) definition, BL refers to a learning program using more than one delivery model to increase students' academic achievement and reduce costs. In Banados' words (2006), BL is "a combination of technology and classroom instruction in a flexible approach to learning that recognises the benefits of delivering some training and assessment online but also uses other modes to make up a complete training programme which can improve learning outcomes and/or save costs" (p. 534). According to Garrison and Vaughan (2008), BL is about the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online learning; the redesigning of a course to increase student engagement; and the restructuring and replacement of traditional class hours. They add that BL blends "the best of traditional and Web-based learning experiences," and this blend or integration is "multiplicative, not additive" (p. 7). Common to these definitions is the recognition of BL as the combination of face-to-face and online-delivery methods to enhance students' learning and reduce costs.

The use of BL has been reported to be on the rise in higher education (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008; Graham, Woodfield, & Harrison, 2013). Its popularity is attributed to research suggesting that BL results in improved learning outcomes (Bonk & Graham, 2006; Vaughan, 2010), improved pedagogy (Graham, 2006), increased learner motivation and satisfaction (Collopy & Arnold, 2009; Fulkerth, 2010), increased interactions (Bonk & Graham, 2006; Delialioglu & Yildirim, 2007), and reduced costs (Bonk & Graham, 2006; Graham, 2006).

In recent years, the flipped or inverted classroom, falling under the broad definition of blended learning, has gained prominence in higher education institutions as an alternative pedagogical model reversing what traditionally occurs in and out of the class.

The flipped classroom

The flipped classroom is an emerging pedagogical model in which traditional lecture is moved outside the classroom via technology and assigned as homework while in-class time is spent on collaborative inquiry-based learning (Bergman & Sams, 2012; Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000; Stone, 2012; Tucker, 2012). The flipped classroom is defined by Bishop and Verleger (2013) as follows:

   The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which employs
   asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and
   active, group-based problem solving activities in the classroom. It
   represents a unique combination of learning theories once thought
   to be incompatible- active, problem-based learning activities
   founded upon a constructivist ideology and instructional lectures
   derived from direct instruction methods founded upon behaviourist
   principles. (p. 1)

The flipped classroom model has developed through the years with contributions from several researchers. In 1996, Mazur argued against using lectures and having passive students in the classroom. He used a technique called "Peer Instruction" to change the traditional instructional model. He asked his students to prepare for class by reading the assigned materials so that they could be actively engaged in the learning process with their peers (Mazur, 2009). …

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