Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Identification and Development of Items Comprising Organizational Citizenship Behaviors among Pharmacy Faculty

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Identification and Development of Items Comprising Organizational Citizenship Behaviors among Pharmacy Faculty

Article excerpt


In recent years, academia has seen a renewed focus in the literature on organizational citizenship behaviors, particularly within institutions of higher learning. Organ originally defined the term organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization." (1(p4)) Prior to this formal definition, Katz described what he called innovative and spontaneous behaviors by employees in an organization. (2) Since most employees know the major requirements and primary benchmarks for performance of their job, spontaneous, or extra-role behaviors were described as "actions not specified by role prescriptions which nevertheless facilitate the accomplishment of organizational goals." (2(p132)) He further argued that "an organization which depends solely upon its blueprints of prescribed behavior is a very fragile social system." (2)

The degree to which employees see their behavior as either in-role or extra-role may vary considerably across persons and situations. (3) Organ refined his original definition of OCB to reflect this, later defining OCBs as "contributions to the maintenance and enhancement of the social and psychological context that supports task performance." (4(p91)) The revised definition by Organ was a move towards a similar construct of contextual performance, or "those contributions that sustain an ethos of cooperation and interpersonal supportiveness of the group," in which the definition does not specify just extra-role or non-rewarded behaviors. (5(p31)) As such, the definition of OCBs should include tasks other than routine functions of the job that contribute in some way to the effective organizational functioning and recognize discretion, variance, and volition in employee behavior. (5)

Empirical evidence suggests that OCBs may facilitate organizational performance. (6-9) Bolino and colleagues proffered a theoretical framework supporting this link. (10) Specifically, they suggested a framework in which OCBs lead to greater social capital for employees, which in turn enhances organizational performance. (10) The relationship between organizational investments in social capital and employee organizational citizenship has been studied in employees from several different industries. (11) Organizational investments in social capital have a positive relationship with OCB. (11) Further, OCBs directed at individuals are positively associated with social support. (12) These relationships support Organ's redefinition which emphasized the social and psychological context of OCBs. (4)

Citizenship behaviors not only enhance organizational effectiveness, but also facilitate greater reward recommendations from managers. (6,7,13-19) Elements of OCB have been implicated on both performance output (quantity) and quality by individuals in an organization. (6) In addition, employees' demonstration of OCBs also may enhance their manager's (in academia, the chair's) personal productivity, success, and evaluation of others. (7)

Organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive impact on managerial evaluations of performance and might be as important as in-role behaviors in this regard. (13-15) This relationship has been found to be mediated by how much the manager likes the employee and by the manager's perception of the employee's affective commitment. (19) To that end, OCBs may impact managerial evaluations and resultant reward allocation decision recommendations. (15,18) The affinity a manager has for an employee has been found to mediate the relationship between OCBs and reward recommendations. (19)

Organ proposed 5 factors of OCB: altruism (ie, behaviors affecting a specific person in a work-related task), conscientiousness (ie, behaviors that go way beyond the role requirements), sportsmanship (ie, ability to tolerate less than ideal circumstances without complaining), civic virtue (ie, behaviors that indicate an employee participates, is involved, oris concerned about the organization), and courtesy (ie, behavior aimed at preventing problems from occurring). …

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