Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Clinical Psychology

Impact of Parental Personality Traits on Parenting Patterns and Parent-Child Relationships in Pakistan

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Clinical Psychology

Impact of Parental Personality Traits on Parenting Patterns and Parent-Child Relationships in Pakistan

Article excerpt

Byline: Sumaya Batool and Alay Ahmad


Objectives: Present study intended to investigate the impact of parental personality traits on parenting patterns and parent child-relationships in Pakistan.

Methods and Materials: This study included 342 parents aged between 31 and 57 years, with 159 fathers and 183 mothers, who were selected through purposive convenient sampling from different cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Parents having children of ages 3-14 years were selected as per requirement of the (PCRI) scale. In the present study we have demonstrated, the two Scales Neo-FFI Scale and PCRI scales to test the hypotheses. It was hypothesized that parental personality traits including openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism would predict parent child relationship i.e. parental support, satisfaction, communication, involvement and autonomy.

Findings: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was estimated for both the scale demonstrated reliable estimates for both scales. From the study through multiple regression analyses it is observed that among the predictors, openness to experience was significant positive predictor of parental support; agreeableness was significant positive predictor of satisfaction, and openness to experience and extraversion were significant positive predictors of communication.

Implications: This study will be helpful for school and family counselors in understanding and dealing with issues related to parents and children.

Keywords: PCRI; Parenting behavior; big five personality traits; Child psychology; parent-child relationship


Positive parenting is a foundation stone that builds the future of child, future of culture and future of society. Specific parenting patterns that develop feelings of positive attachment among children, inspire them to develop strong social feelings, and help them to build their personality are crucial. Children's personality is a reflection of parents' personality because when upbringing a child parents impart their traits in children directly or indirectly (Cunningham, and Thornton, 2006; Hair, Moore, Hadley, Kaye, Day, and Orthner, 2009). In line with a contextual approach, the life span perspective of human development has taken into account socio-economic, political, and historical changes and their effects the development of the individual persons and their relations in the family (Amato, 2005; Crocket and Silbereisen, 2000; Elder, van Nguyen, and Caspi, 1985).

Social and economic changes have had considerable impact on intergenerational relations including vertical or horizontal economic transfers and investments the relationship quality, the continuity or discontinuity of intergenerational relations over time, similarities and differences between the generation with respect to values and mutual perceptions between generations, intergenerational solidarity and support, including grandparents and grandchildren (Gerard, Krishnakumar, and Buehler, 2006; King and Elder, 1997; Kohli and Szydlik, 2000)

According to personality theory proposed by Rohner (2007), personality, aptitude and readiness to respond (emotion, cognition, perception and motivation) and the actual response (overt behavior) in various real life situations or contexts are defined. In Pakistan, few researches have been conducted in past decades which measured parent-child relationships directly or indirectly. Thus, in order to justify those variables which were ignored in former studies, efforts in the present study were engrossed on determining the parental personality traits that affects the positive parenting. Moreover, parental personality traits significantly influence the mental health of children (Abester, Khanjani, Nosratabad, and Beyrami, 2012). Cross-cultural studies reveal the heterogeneity of that occurred between the relationship of parents and their children in specified and different ages, enlightening similarities, and inconsistency across philosophies. …

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