Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Therapeutic Mechanisms of Check, Connect, and Expect

Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Therapeutic Mechanisms of Check, Connect, and Expect

Article excerpt

A review of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) research indicates that it grew from a need to replace reactive punitive practices such as suspensions and expulsions by increasing students' social competency (Mcintosh, Filter, Bennett, Ryan, & Sugai, 2010). According to the Positive Behavioral interventions & Supports (PBIS) website (PBIS, Office of Special Education Programs, n.d., "Tier 1 FAQs" Web page), 3-tiered SWPBS was developed based on research-based interventions and it is estimated that over 7,000 schools currently implement SWPBS. Tier 1 is designed to help staff teach school-wide social behavior expectations (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004). Tier 2 is designed for students who are unresponsive to Tier 1 intervention (Crone et al., 2004; Walker et al., 1996), and finally, Tier 3 is designed for students exhibiting chronic behavior problems (Sugai & Horner, 2006; Walker et al., 1996). This study focuses on the therapeutic mechanisms of a Tier 2 SWPBS program, Check, Connect, and Expect (CCE), by testing mediating and moderating variable effects on student problem behavior outcomes. This research is needed to promote our understanding of how CCE works, which in turn can influence our future implementation efforts (Kazdin & Nock, 2003).

The rationale for evaluating the therapeutic mechanism of a Tier 2 SWPBS program is that, because of the need for increased intervention efforts across a larger number of students, these programs require more resources to efficiently identify children who need help, train teachers and staff, and communicate with stakeholders (e.g., 15%-20%; Crone et al., 2004). There are several programs that can fit within an SWPBS approach; the Office of Special Education Programs PBIS Technical Assistance Center (PBIS, Office of Special Education Programs, n.d., "Tier 2 supports" Web page) lists the following Tier 2 interventions for consideration based on research: Check & Connect (C&C; Sinclair, Christenson, Evelo, & Hurley, 1998), Check-In and Check-Out (CICO; Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner, 2008), the CCE program (Cheney et al., 2009), social skills instruction, and First Steps to Success (Walker, Severson, Feil, Stiller, & Golly, 1998).

Most of these Tier 2 interventions commonly use a teacher and/or a coach or mentor to give daily behavioral feedback to the at-risk students. This feedback can be critical because increasing student-teacher positive interactions and reducing the number of negative interactions may act as mediating mechanisms to improve student social competence (McIntosh et al., 2010). In support of the adult-student therapeutic effect, a meta-analysis of positive child-therapist relationships on behavioral symptom outcomes found an overall effect size of 0.32 (Shirk, Karver, & Brown, 2011). In another study, in a clinical sample of 90 children receiving treatment for aggressive, oppositional, and antisocial behavior, Kazdin and Durbin (2012) found that, as the quality of the child-therapist therapeutic relationship increased, so did the positive behavioral outcomes.

However, there are some slight differences in the emphasis of purported therapeutic mechanisms for each Tier 2 intervention reviewed below. C&C is predicated on a positive interpersonal relationship between the coach and the student (Sinclair et al., 1998). In contrast, the mechanism for behavior change with CICO is predicated on more specific feedback derived from an adult mentor and the teachers' evaluation of students' behavior on a behavior expectation report card (Todd et al., 2008). The therapeutic mechanisms for the CCE program include positive interpersonal relationships between the coach and the student and between the teacher and the student, as well as explicit behavioral feedback on school-wide behavior expectations (Cheney et al., 2009). Even though for each of these interventions, there is a stated therapeutic mechanism for changing student behavior, to our knowledge, none has been statistically tested. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.