Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Designing of Outdoor Green Recreational Parks

Academic journal article Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management

Designing of Outdoor Green Recreational Parks

Article excerpt


The lack of << green >> from the urban environment has negative effects on all aspects of human activity. People are affected psychologically, spiritually, culturally and also in their work life, under constant pressure and high stress levels, deprived of important activities and the pleasures of everyday life. Thus, it is observed that people tend to prefer natural landscapes than structured ones, especially when there is an absence of vegetation and aquatic element. Generally, when people are under pressure, they search for the shelter of a natural landscape, that will make them feel better. Landscapes consisting of trees, grass, water, rock formations, flowers and birds are considered very useful and necessary in today's busy city people. This paper records the most important principles, which are useful to follow when designing an outdoor urban recreation area.

Keywords: recreation; outdoor; parks; urban; green


The function and use of << green resources >> should be such, as not to limit communal and easy access of the population, not to disturb the structure of the flora and fauna in general, and not to affect the aesthetics, culture and the environment. So, the roles of suburban green areas are: a) Daily recreation, b) Stabilization of soils and flood protection of urban areas, c) Specific forms of exercising (walking, light jogging, hiking, climbing, etc.), d) Contact with the natural environment and environmental education, e) Contribution to improving the climate, f) Clarity of the atmosphere, g) Direct and indirect economic benefits.

Hunting, car racing and motocross, which cause noises, disturb recreational activities and wildlife, as well as any other activity that limits the public use (Eleftheriadis 2002), should be considered incompatible use of suburban forests. Thus, the following conclusions can be drawn about the role of urban and suburban green areas (Ntafis 2001): a) The possibility to offer short-term and frequent leisure, b) Offering better climatic living conditions for the city's residents. The phenomenon of city overheating and the creation of an urban heat island, that raises the temperature in the city by 6-10oC, can only be alleviated or even reversed by sufficient green areas, c) Protection against the wind, d) Noise Reduction, e) Conservation of atmosphere's composition, f) Stabilization of soils and flood protection, g) Provision of natural environment for the local fauna. The purpose of this paper is to examine and present the evolution in the design of outdoor green recreational parks.

2. The role of << green >>

Below, a more detailed presentation of the benefits of urban << green resources >> is presented:

a) Reduction of air pollution

<< Green >> (especially trees) is necessary because it helps in capturing and retaining solid pollutants (dust, ashes, smoke, pollen) and produces oxygen. During photosynthesis, which is the most important biological phenomenon, trees, with the help mainly of chlorophyll, under sunlight and moisture, absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, retaining carbon, and emit oxygen and ozone. If you calculate that a person consumes 250 pounds of O2 per year, then one hectare (10 acres) of forest ensures breathing for 10 people, producing 2.5 tons / hectare. Studies have shown that 25 to 30 plants produce the amount of oxygen needed for about two people to breath. Also it absorbs enough CO2 per hectare annually, so that it balances the amount produced by a car driver traveling a distance of 41,600 kilometers. According to a survey conducted in Chicago in 1991, the air pollution control of an urban forest of 2,100 hectares, was equivalent to implementing technical measures for limiting the pollution, costing $ 136 per day (McPherson, 1991). In another study, it was estimated that the reduction of pollutants by urban forests provided important benefits, which ranged from 8 million USD in Milwaukee to 30 million USD in Austin, at an annual base (American Forests 1997). …

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