Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Workplace Spirituality in Indian Organisations: Construction of Reliable and Valid Measurement Scale

Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Workplace Spirituality in Indian Organisations: Construction of Reliable and Valid Measurement Scale

Article excerpt

Abstract. The purpose of the paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive tool for measuring workplace spirituality. On the basis of literature, feedback from academic and industry professionals, a heuristic framework along with a scale on workplace spirituality was proposed and a questionnaire was developed. The instrument obtained empirical views from experts on its dimensions and statements. Content validity ratio (CVR) of the instrument was carried out and the retained items were taken for field survey. Three hundred and sixty one executive respondents employed in manufacturing and service organisations in Indian subcontinent responded to the 44 items scale assessing different facets of spirituality at workplace. This helped to validate the factors of workplace spirituality and optimize the contents of the proposed instrument with the help of structural equation modelling. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four distinct factors that constitute the new instrument of workplace spirituality: spiritual orientation, compassion, meaningful work, and alignment of values. Reliability analysis reported high level of internal consistency of the total scale ([alpha] = .78) and the five subscales ([alpha]'s ranging from .75 to .87). Finally, 30 items were retained with four important factors of Workplace Spirituality Scale.

Keywords: Spiritual orientation, Meaningful work, Compassion, Alignment of values, Workplace spirituality, Scale development, Validation, SEM, Indian context.

JEL Classification: C12, C42.


Few decades back organizations were reluctant to discuss spirituality at workplace owing to its religious and communal connotation. But today organizations have realized that to harness the potential of their employees they have to offer them meaning in what they do or who they are as an organizational member (Anthony 2015). This profound transformation is backed by several studies which highlights the relationship between spirituality at workplace and organizational outcomes. The frequency of management books printed on spirituality has increased exponentially over the past 20 years with analogous growth in conference proceedings and symposia talk on "work place spirituality" across continents. Interestingly Neal and Biberman (2003) has specified that "one of the first journals to have published articles explicitly on the topic of spirituality and work appears to be the Journal of Organizational Change Management and between 1992 and 2014, the journal has published 122 such articles that have cited spirituality, including 36 articles with spirituality as their dedicated main focus". Apparently by this time "there seem to be as many definitions of spirituality at workplace as there are researchers!" (Singhal and Chatterjee 2006). The question that arises in this context is "Why is there such an intensified curiosity to learn the nuances of workplace spirituality"?

One potential answer to this question we have observed that, in this knowledge and information era people are progressively aspiring to experience meaningfulness not only in their personal lives, but also in their professional sphere (Ray 1992). In the present globalized world, work has undoubtedly taken a more conspicuous and time consuming place in the life of a professional. Therefore, today's knowledge professionals have realized that there need to have a spiritual consciousness for amalgamating one's personal values and professional goals (Sandra 2015, Pradhan and Jena 2016). This includes discovering the purpose of one's life through self-introspection, the relationship with society around, self-transcendence by allowing self to contribute for betterment of others. Because of its association with meaning, contemporary spirituality implicitly warrants for a greater understanding of human identity and of psychosocial development in a workplace setting. However, the literature available as on now has given a number of insights, but it has been criticized for lacking the critical insights (Gibbons 2000). …

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