Academic journal article Indian Journal of Psychiatry

Effect of Listening to Vedic Chants and Indian Classical Instrumental Music on Patients Undergoing Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Randomized Control Trial

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Psychiatry

Effect of Listening to Vedic Chants and Indian Classical Instrumental Music on Patients Undergoing Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Randomized Control Trial

Article excerpt

Byline: Anita. Padam, Neetu. Sharma, O. S. K. S. Sastri, Shivani. Mahajan, Rajesh. Sharma, Deepak. Sharma

Background: A high level of preoperative anxiety is common among patients undergoing medical and surgical procedures. Anxiety impacts of gastroenterological procedures on psychological and physiological responses are worth consideration. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the effect of listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music on anxiety levels and on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was done on 199 patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy. On arrival, their anxiety levels were assessed using state and trait scores and various physiological parameters such as HR, BP, and SpO[sub]2. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group I of 67 patients who were made to listen prerecorded Vedic chants for 10 min, Group II consisting of 66 patients who listened to Indian classical instrumental music for 10 min, and Group III of 66 controls who remained seated for same period in the same environment. Thereafter, their anxiety state scores and physiological parameters were reassessed. Results: A significant reduction in anxiety state scores was observed in the patients in Group I (from 40.4 [+ or -] 8.9 to 38.5 [+ or -] 10.7; P < 0.05) and Group II (from 41.8 [+ or -] 9.9 to 38.0 [+ or -] 8.6; P < 0.001) while Group III controls showed no significant change in the anxiety scores. A significant decrease in systolic BP (P < 0.001), diastolic BP (P < 0.05), and SpO[sub]2 (P < 0.05 was also observed in Group II. Conclusion: Listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music has beneficial effects on alleviating anxiety levels induced by apprehension of invasive procedures and can be of therapeutic use.

Introduction

Hospitals are not a part of our everyday routines. This foreign environment can easily elicit fear and anxiety in patients. More so, if patient has to undergo some invasive procedure, their anxiety increases many folds.[sup][1] Preventing or alleviating intense anxiety during the examination is important not only because of its unpleasantness per se but also because anxiety may prolong the procedure or result in incomplete procedure, greater medication use, increasing the probability of side effects.[sup][2],[3]

To reduce patient's anxiety during invasive procedures, various approaches have been used to distract the patient's attention, such as therapeutic communication, information, visualization, aromatherapy, therapeutic touch, and listening to music.[sup][4],[5] Scientific studies have shown the value of music therapy on the body, mind, or health of diseased individuals.[sup][6] Clinical trials have revealed a reduction in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), breathing rate, insomnia, depression, and anxiety with music therapy.[sup][7],[8]

There are only few studies which have evaluated the effect of Indian music on anxiety and BP, HR, and oxygen saturation during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Till date, no studies have reported the effect of listening to Vedic chants on these parameters. With this background, we conducted a study to observe the physiological effect of Vedic mantras and Indian classical music in patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy for dyspepsia.

Materials and Methods

The present study is a randomized control trial conducted in the Department of Physiology and Gastroenterology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla and is approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee as per No. (MS) G-5(Ethic)/2015-8368. The study population included patients aged 18 years and above presenting for elective outpatient GI endoscopy for the first time. Exclusion criteria were patients with impaired hearing, hemodynamic instability, and patients on antihypertensive and antipsychotic drugs. …

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