Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Socio-Humanitarian Nature of Professionalism of the Journalist

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Socio-Humanitarian Nature of Professionalism of the Journalist

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Russian journalism in its modern state has been formed for the last decades of the XX century. The profession of journalist and the concept of professionalism in journalism have undergone certain changes, understanding and interpretation of which is essential for the theoretical comprehension of Russian journalism and its future fate. This paper aims to reveal the terms of professionalism in journalism, determine what personal qualities a journalist must have, how the changes in socio-economic situation in the country affect understanding of the role of the journalist.

American sociologist T. Parsons paid considerable attention to the professional abilities (professional complex). He described in detail the professional type which includes three main elements: rationality, function distribution and universalism. He also refers to three criteria for the definition of a professional role: formal "technical training" requirement, availability of skills of realization of the obtained professional knowledge and confidence of free professionals that their competence is used in the interests of the whole social system.

The ideals of professionalism and social responsibility of professionals--the topic of modern times--of the era which Habermas, following the western terminology, determines by the adjective modern. The modern is permeated with moral ideas of humanism, freedom, equality. The problem of man is a central problem of the modern. The epoch of the modern has endorsed not only the value of man as an individual, his right to the free development and expression of his abilities, but also created all the conditions in order to appreciate the talent and vocation. Man tries to give a meaning to the path traveled from the point of view of vocations, spiritual mission. Talent and vocation are essential in society with humanistic ideals. Only the humanistic, rational, pure underlies the development of all forms of public life.

The journalists of a new era had to change many things in the traditions of previous domestic press and even start working from scratch as the phrase is. "The growth of communication technologies and subsequent expansion of information have resulted in the fact the analysis ceased being the prerogative of the expert media community and unambiguous interpretation within the same ideological paradigm ceased meeting the needs of the public". This explains the prevalence of informational materials over analytical materials in modern publications.

Thus, the main feature of the journalistic profession becomes minimization of creativity, simplification of thought, tendency to standardization. These professional traits have been shaped to some extent affected by foreign culture, the influence of which overshadows "theirs", "their own". The cultural revolution of the transition period has transformed human spiritual life. Values have changed, and as the result, attitude to the work and the ideas of professionalism.

The globalization and role of the Internet and multimedia technologies affect journalism. "One feels strong influence of technological progress. Creative profession previously is now being technologized, certain claims are laid to journalists and journalism in general. Distinctions between creativity and technology of work are obliterated".

Social transformations have contributed not only to the press division but the division of the journalists themselves. Scholar S. Pasti divides them on generational basis: older generation (Soviet journalists) and young generation (those who came to journalism in the 1990s). The period of liberalization, concludes S. Pasti, has brought deprofessionalization of journalistic community on the one hand, as a it has made the profession open and accessible to dilettantes, but--it has bankrupted the Soviet idea of journalism as a public institution, deideologized it on the other hand, and it can be considered a prerequisite for future professionalization of journalism. …

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