Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Linguistic Peculiarities of the Modern Political Discourse of Russia and the USA

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Linguistic Peculiarities of the Modern Political Discourse of Russia and the USA

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

In contemporary political discourse significant percentage of politicians owing to their speechwriters and political image makers use various lexical stylistic devices to achieve actual political aims through various kinds of persuasion. While producing different texts of speeches, they include into them not only profound knowledge of the natural and social worlds (values, beliefs, assumptions) but also their knowledge of language which impact is obvious. These techniques as the simplicity of speech, namely direct appeal to ordinary people, effective image-making strategies by visual and verbal language means, the creation of effective visual products of persuasion (political advertisements and cartoons) allow them to introduce socially important and culturally oriented concepts for the purpose of keeping their power and reinforcing their serious impact on public opinion.

The literature on political discourse shows a variety of approaches. The authors are united in one belief that a successful politician is always alert to nuance and the finest shades of verbal meaning. In their speeches, they very often try to "textualize" the world in their own particular way (Fairclough, 1989). In this paper we offer that words and other linguistic expressions enter into many sorts of relationship in their speeches under self-control of a speaker or a professional guidance of a supporter making political discourse emotional, powerful, and very persuasive.

VIEWS ON POLITICAL DISCOURSE

If we consider the notion discourse itself, this paper presents a broad term with different definitions which "integrates a whole palette of meanings", including various branches of linguistics: sociology, philosophy and other disciplines. The most interesting approach to this issue has been proposed by Fairclough who describes the term as "the whole process of interaction of which a text is just a part" (Fairclough, 1989). As pervasive ways of experiencing the world, discourses refer to expressing oneself using words. Discourses can be used for asserting power and knowledge, and for resistance and critique.

The speaker expresses his ideological content in texts, as does the linguistic form of the text. That is, selection or choice of a linguistic form may not be a live process for the individual speaker, but the discourse will be a reproduction of that previously learned discourse. <> (Biktagirova Z., Deputatova N., 2014).

The results obtained by Schaffner suggest that political discourse, as a sub-category of discourse in general, can be based on two criteria: functional and thematic. Political discourse is a result of politics and it is historically and culturally determined. It fulfills different functions due to different political activities (Schaffner, et.al 2006). It is thematic because its topics are primarily related to politics such as political activities, political ideas and political relations.

Although the use of language is unquestionably an important element of politics, Fairclough notes that it can "misrepresent as well as represent realities, it can weave visions and imaginaries which can be implemented to change realities and in some cases improve human well-being, but it can also rhetorically obfuscate realities, and construe them ideologically to serve unjust power relations" (Fairclough, 1989).

The objective of this article is to propose that the language is constantly changing owing to the progressive advance its society, attendant extralinguistic factors and laws of the development of the language as a system, i.e. intralinguistic factors (Sadykova A.G., Gilmutdinova A.R., 2014).

The main purpose of politicians is to persuade their audience of the validity of their political claims. …

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