Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Innovative Clusters as a Factor of Growth of the Regional Innovative Activity (as Examplified by Innokam Innovative Cluster)

Academic journal article Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict

Innovative Clusters as a Factor of Growth of the Regional Innovative Activity (as Examplified by Innokam Innovative Cluster)

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

In the innovative development strategy for the period up to 2020 "Innovative Russia 2020", one of the main goals is "to create a network of territorial production clusters implementing the territories' competitive potential, to form a number of innovative high-tech clusters in the European and Asian parts of Russia" (Innovative Russia", 2020, p. 115). Today, the cluster policy is considered as an effective tool to improve the competitiveness of the Russian regional economy, as it has proved its effectiveness in the world, which predetermines implementation of the cluster policy in the Russian Federation. Identification and support of clusters is also an important tool for stimulating economic development in the countries with transition economies (C. Ketels., 2003, p. 1).

DEFINITION OF AN "INNOVATIVE CLUSTER"

Alfred Marshall was the first who introduced the concept of "cluster" in his "Principles of economics" in 1890. Based on the activity in the industrial areas of England, A. Marshall formulated three basic prerequisites of higher performance of single-industry companies located geographically close to each other: available skilled labor, specialization of different companies at different production cycle stages and segments and exchange of ideas.

In the 90's M.Porter formulated the cluster definition as "geographically concentrated groups of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in the relevant industries, as well as institutions related with their activities (e.g. universities, standardization agencies, trade associations) in certain areas, which are competing, but at the same time conducting joint activities" (Porter M.E., 1998, p. 251). Today, the most important results in the field of cluster theory are presented in the works of C. Ketels, O.Solvell and M.Porter, who are dealing with the practical implementation of the cluster concept (Table 1).

Compiling the above definition of clusters, the innovative cluster can be defined as a set of enterprises and institutions located on a limited area, which is characterized by available scientific center, innovative infrastructure and innovative enterprises, whose relationship creates a synergistic economic effect.

FEATURES OF THE MODERN CLUSTER POLICY

In 2009, the European Commission has established a European Cluster Excellency Initiative, which aims at analyzing and advising a cluster on the management quality improvement. In order to assess the conducted works, the European Secretariat for Cluster Analysis developed a Gold, Silver and Bronze label, to which clusters may correspond on certain indicators.

In recent years, the cluster initiative has been rapidly growing in China. In 2015, at the 10th EU--China Business and Technology Cooperation Fair the 30 most competitive innovative clusters were presented to exchange experiences, develop and strengthen cooperation in the field of industry and innovation.

In Russia, the clusters formed on the basis of large enterprises in high-tech industries and supported by the Ministry of Economy are in the early stages of development. Selected in 2012 on a competitive basis, they received RUB 3.8 mlrd for the development programs in 2013. The aerospace industry, nuclear and information technologies were identified the main specializations.

Methodology and implementation of the cluster policy in Russia is broadly consistent with the conceptual basis for similar European programs, particularly French and German (Kutsenko E., Meissner D., 2013, p.27).

The basis for the formation of the majority of clusters was former large Soviet enterprises with their infrastructure and human capital. The large enterprises and small firms survived during the transition period of 1990--"spinoffs" of Soviet factories--are part of many clusters. Biotechnologies and pharmaceuticals, aerospace industry, nuclear and information technologies are defined the main areas of specialization in the pilot clusters. …

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