Academic journal article European Research Studies

The Characteristics of the Formation of Income of Multi-Child Households under Conditions of a Financial Crisis

Academic journal article European Research Studies

The Characteristics of the Formation of Income of Multi-Child Households under Conditions of a Financial Crisis

Article excerpt

Introduction

The problems with population reproduction in Russia provide a rationale for special attention on the part of society and the government to the social-economic status of families with children. Worthy of special attention are families belonging to a category that has become a rare phenomenon these days--multi-child families. The significance of the family's effect on the formation and existence of a person, its complexities, multi-faceted nature, and being hard to define all combine to provide a rationale for the existence of a large number of different approaches to the study of the family, as well as of different kinds of definitions found in the literature.

A.I. Antonov and V.M. Medkov construe the family as being predicated on the uniform common family practices of a community of people bound by ties of marriage, parenthood, and kinship, whereby it facilitates population reproduction and continuity between family generations, as well as the social adjustment of children and maintenance of the existence of family members (Antonov and Medkov, 1996).

A.G. Kharchev views the family as an "institutionalized community that develops based on the marriage and resulting legal and moral responsibility of the spouses for the health of their children and their upbringing" (Kharchev, 2003). The scholar asserts that the family is not limited by marriage solely but is a concept that is more complex and multi-faceted than that, since, as a rule, it joins together not just the spouses but their children too, as well as other relatives or just loved ones and those needing each other, who may sometimes not necessarily be bound by blood.

Sociologist A.V. Mudrik construes the family as a small group based on marriage or kinship whose members are connected through living together, engaging in common everyday routines, assuming mutual moral responsibility, and helping and assisting each other. It possesses a set of norms, sanctions, and behavior models regulating the interrelationship between the spouses, parents and children, and other relatives (Mudrik, 2003).

The concept's diversity is additionally redoubled when it comes to defining the multi-child family. Today, a multi-child family is normally a family that has 3 or more children. Researchers have to yet to arrive at common ground as to what kind of family is to be regarded as multi-child. Thus, for instance, sociologists A.I. Antonov and V.M. Medkov think of a multi-child family as one that has 5 or more children, while in the practice of social work it is common to consider as multi-child families those that have 3 or more children ages up to 16 or 18.

Below are the major angles that are fundamental for the definition of the multi-child family:

1) The everyday (ordinary) component: there are more children than usual, in alignment with norms and rules accepted by society and the government. Currently, it, predominantly, is a family with three children.

2) The demographic component: a family with 1 or 2 children (a few-child one), 3 or 4 children (a regular one), and 5 children (a true multi-child family). There is a saying that may apply in this regard: "one child is no child, two children are half a child, and three children are a child". This implies that only the third child in the family will nominally be considered as the first one, and, accordingly, the fourth child as the second one and the fifth one as the third one. This is why having a minimum of 5 children makes a large family--a multi-child one.

3) The social-psychological component: there are so many dependents for the wage earner to support that this hampers the optimum communication of the family members and hinders the family functioning as a smaller group.

4) The economic component: a multi-child family is where the birth of every new child worsens the status of the family and its members.

Research indicates that multi-child families are distinguished by maximum risk and poverty depth levels, although they do not constitute a large share among the poor: just 3. …

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