Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Overview of Faculty Development Programs for Interprofessional Education

Academic journal article American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education

Overview of Faculty Development Programs for Interprofessional Education

Article excerpt

Objectives. To describe characteristics of faculty development programs designed to facilitate interprofessional education, and to compile recommendations for development, delivery, and assessment of such faculty development programs.

Methods. MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, and Web of Science databases were searched using three keywords: faculty development, interprofessional education, and health professions. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for emergent themes, including program design, delivery, participants, resources, and assessment.

Results. Seventeen articles were identified for inclusion, yielding five characteristics of a successful program: institutional support; objectives and outcomes based on interprofessional competencies; focus on consensus-building and group facilitation skills; flexibility based on institution- and participant-specific characteristics; and incorporation of an assessment strategy.

Conclusion. The themes and characteristics identified in this literature overview may support development of faculty development programs for interprofessional education. An advanced evidence base for interprofessional education faculty development programs is needed.

Keywords: faculty development, interprofessional education, health professions, overview

INTRODUCTION

Interprofessional collaborative practice is a key mechanism to improving the health care delivery system as measured by positive patient care outcomes, improved health of communities, and decreased per capita costs of health care. Health professionals must be prepared to participate in team-based health care upon licensure.

Definitions of interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice were disseminated by the World Health Organization, (1) promoting engagement of students to learn about, from, and with each other to enable them to collaborate effectively in practice to improve health outcomes. Interprofessional collaboration occurs when practitioners develop and maintain interprofessional working relationships to provide optimal health outcomes. (1,2) Various models for organizing competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice have been developed to guide development of curricula aimed at student achievement of these competencies. (3-5) Furthermore, accrediting bodies have begun mandating interprofessional education in health professions programs. (6) As accreditation mandates change, and this field continues to evolve, guidance for incorporation of interprofessional education into curricula is needed.

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) has embraced interprofessional team-based care as a core of emerging pharmacy practice. Language in current accreditation standards and guidelines require that students graduating from accredited programs are "team ready" and prepared for interprofessional collaborative practice. (7) Of the 25 accreditation standards, 10 make specific mention of interprofessional collaboration, ranging from educational outcomes related to approach to practice and care (standard 3, key element 3.4), culture of the college or school (standard 9), curriculum design (key element 10.8), interprofessional education (standard 11, key elements 11.1, 11.2, and 11.3), introductory pharmacy practice experiences (key element 12.5), advanced pharmacy practice experiences (key element 13.3), sufficient faculty (key element 18.1), physical facilities (key element 21.1), assessment of student achievement and readiness (key element 24.3), and assessment of interprofessional preparedness (key element 25.6). (7)

It is expected that interprofessional education should prepare health care professionals for interprofessional collaborative practice. This goal can be achieved only if educators have the knowledge and skills required to train health professions students for interprofessional collaborative practice. …

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