Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Discussion on Methodology of Water Crystal Formation as a Detection System for Psi

Academic journal article The Journal of Parapsychology

Discussion on Methodology of Water Crystal Formation as a Detection System for Psi

Article excerpt

DISCUSSION SUR LA METHODOLOGIE DE LA FORMATION DE CRISTAL D'EAU COMME SYSTEME DE DETECTION DU PSI

DISKUSSION ZUR METHODOLOGIE DER WASSERKRISTALLBILDUNG ZUM PSI-NACHWEIS

UNA DISCUSION SOBRE LA METODOLOGIA DE LA FORMACION DEL CRISTAL DE AGUA COMO SISTEMA DE DETECCION PARA PSI

Liquid water is an excellent solvent which can dissolve a multitude of substances, and it also has important roles in life activities. For example, about 70% of the human body is water, and humans cannot live without water. Water is an important substance for all living creatures on the earth.

In research on ki (qi) and parapsychology, there are studies suggesting that water relates essentially to the nature of anomalous phenomena. For example, Kataoka, Sugiyama, & Matsumoto (1997a, 1997b) reported the results of examining human neutrophils, a kind of leukocyte. After a healer gave his "power" to a water solution (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4), the solution was given to human neutrophils. It was found that the calcium ion channel on the cell membrane of the neutrophils was opened and phagocytosis was activated. In contrast, the control solution (without the healer's power) did not activate the calcium ion channel nor phagocytosis. Moreover, Sasaki, Sako, and Kobayashi (1993) reported that a qigong master gave his power to water samples and the conductance of the samples changed anomalously during 17 days of measurements. In these studies, healers merely gave their power to water (without any intent to cause a certain phenomenon). These studies suggest that water has a specific property to retain anomalous effects. However, what kinds of mechanisms cause this retention have not been studied yet.

Recently, in chemistry and biosciences, some researchers have reported interesting and strange properties of water. For example, Algara-Siller et al. (2015) reported high-resolution electron microscopy images of water locked between two graphene sheets, an archetypal example of hydrophobic confinement. Their observations showed that the nanoconfined water at room temperature forms "square ice"--a phase having symmetry qualitatively different from the conventional tetrahedral geometry of hydrogen bonding between water molecules. Pollack (2013) found that if liquid water contacted the surface of a hydrophilic material, a special zone of water was formed near the surface. He claimed that it was the fourth phase of water, which was different from solid, liquid, and gas phases. Montagnier et al. (2011) reported that liquid water has an ability to retain DNA information. These studies suggest the possibility to expand consideration of water and to explain ki or psi phenomena scientifically.

On the other hand, as researchers know well, practitioners of healing and qigong often claim that liquid water shows a special responsiveness to ki or psi. For example, the taste of drinks can be changed if the practitioners give their power to them. Moreover, Emoto (1999) published the photo book Messages from Water, claiming that if a person writes phrases such as "love and gratitude" on a paper and attaches the paper to a bottle containing water, water crystals will take special forms. However, these claims are anecdotal and subjective and are insufficient as evidence from the viewpoints of modern science. If researchers want to discuss their claims as scientific hypotheses, experimental studies are needed, for example, to measure the change of measurable parameters (pH, components of foods and drinks, radius of particles, temperature. etc.). Moreover, researchers have to start from a basic hypothesis that anomalous formulation of water crystals can be caused by intent directly, before claiming that anomalous effects also can be caused by written letters. Radin, Hayssen, Emoto, and Kizu (2006) tested water crystal formation in such a basic study and reported that human intent can affect water crystal formation. …

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