Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Investigating the Use of the Khan Academy and Mathematics Software with a Flipped Classroom Approach in Mathematics Teaching

Academic journal article Educational Technology & Society

Investigating the Use of the Khan Academy and Mathematics Software with a Flipped Classroom Approach in Mathematics Teaching

Article excerpt

Introduction

Information, communication and working styles have changed in the 21st century. This change has affected education and it has required computer and electronic technologies to be used in every field (Niess, 2005). Educators, particularly involving courses in mathematics that are difficult to understand (Freudenthal, 1983), have enabled students to better understand the concepts involved using technologies (Hoyles & Jones, 1998). The technologies have also given students opportunities to work on real life problems (Pierce & Stacey, 2011), and has also enabled them to identify different representations of concepts (Heid & Edwards, 2001).

It is regarded that using information communications technology (ICT) in very difficult mathematics courses is beneficial to students (Jones, 2000; Laborde, 1993; Marshall, Buteau, Jarvis, & Lavicza, 2012). Teachers use their knowledge of content, teaching and learning, and technology to promote experiences that develop students' learning and creativity in computer-mediated environments (International Society for Technology in Education [ISTE], 2008). Moreover, teachers are expected to prepare their content by using a variety of software and to transfer them to the learning environment with the use of worksheets. In addition to teachers' efforts in using these education technologies, it is important to consider how and with which approaches these technologies could be reflected in the classroom learning environment. It is considered that the flipped classroom, one of the blended learning models used widely, (Sahin, Cavlazoglu, & Zeytuncu, 2015) can enable teachers and students to structure the learning environment.

Essentially in a flipped classroom what is learned in class is learned at home, and homework done at home is now done in class (Bergmann & Sams, 2012). The traditional model of instruction is teacher-centred; the teacher gives lectures during the lesson and assigns students homework to do at home. The flipped classroom, or inverted classroom, reverses traditional education: the teacher delivers the content outside the classroom with videos prepared by him/her, and uses class time for active learning by having students collaborate and interact with each other (Mok, 2014). As a result of the flipped classroom, students find more opportunities to get engaged with more activities in class and to have discussions about the concepts involved. However, the teacher should very carefully plan activities, videos, presentations, or study notes to deliver content outside of the classroom.

There is also a concern that the flipped classroom can be regarded as one of the barriers between technology and teachers. However, Bergmann and Sams (2012) stress that the solution to overcoming the barriers in flipped classrooms is to employ, train, and support teachers. Moreover, although some critics fear that the Khan Academy's importance can result in standardization and deprofessionalization, Bergmann and Sams (2012) and Andrea Smith point out that educational videos as important tools because teachers can develop content, share resources, and promote practice (as cited in Tucker, 2012). The Khan Academy provides numerous activities, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that enable students to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. The Khan Academy guides students from nursery class to advanced mathematics by using the most developed and adaptive technologies. Moreover, the educator dashboard offers a summary of class performance. The Khan Academy founded by Salman Khan has grown into an 80-person organization that aims at providing a free world-class education for anyone, anywhere (Khan Academy, 2016). The Khan Academy is translated into different languages and offers content suitable to all levels in an entertaining environment by taking into consideration students' knowledge gaps (Dijksman & Khan, 2011). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.