Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Push & Pull Factors in Entrepreneurial Intentions among Youth in a Small Imperial State

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Push & Pull Factors in Entrepreneurial Intentions among Youth in a Small Imperial State

Article excerpt


Over the past many years, there has been an ongoing debate all over the world regarding youth entrepreneurship. Both developed and developing countries perceive youth entrepreneurship as a way of boosting economic competitiveness and promoting regional development. Many researchers argue that entrepreneurial activity needs to be tapped by developing countries to enable them to compete in a globalizing market economy (Khandwalla, 1998; Kunango, 1998). However, most of the studies pointed towards the lack of support system for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in developing countries. Besides lack of financial assistance, lack of counseling and training programs, the grant of licenses and policies and controls and taxation had been cited as the major hurdles in the setting up and running of new businesses (Awasthi & Sebastian, 1996; Gautam, 1979; Mokry, 1988; Sadhak, 1989; Singh, 1985). Schoof (2006) examined a range of key constraints that impede young people in different countries from starting successful businesses. Entrepreneurial education, access to start-up capital and business provider services were found among the key factors impeding youth entrepreneurship, alongside societal attitudes and a regulatory framework.

Previous research showed that the formation of potential entrepreneurs through education and entrepreneurial training can help economic growth. The entrepreneurs' support system through entrepreneurship education can stimulate and facilitate entrepreneurial activities that can reduce the extent of unemployment, increase the formation of new businesses and reduce the number of business fail (Hatten & Ruhland, 1995; Ronstadt, 1985; Hensemark, 1998). Dana (1993) maintained that entrepreneurial training and education provided to the entrepreneurs will be able to contribute to their knowledge, skills and experience. The study by Upton, Sexton & Moore (1995) found that there is a relationship between entrepreneurship education and training on the tendency to start a business and the success of a business. Apart from the attitude of entrepreneurs who constantly upgrade their skills and knowledge in entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurs must have the ability to take risks in carrying out their entrepreneurial activities. Accordingly McConnell (2003) explained that the training will be more effective if the training need analysis is carried out comprehensively in advance.

In line with these suggestions, the present study is an attempt to identify the training need for entrepreneurial development among youth belonging to Kashmir Valley.

Need for the Study

Employment has always been a central issue in the development of nations. Providing jobs for a growing population is one of the most pressing challenges for all the governments in the world. One of the major reasons for lack of jobs is the swell in the proportion of youth within the population. Kashmir is not an exception to this trend. 71% of the population in Kashmir is under the age of 35 years and a large chunk among them are unemployed (GOI-Census, 2013). The consequences of unemployment are manifold all around the globe. Idle youth find themselves isolated, incur feelings of failure and experience depression, to name a few. However, in Kashmir these negative consequences are compounded by the episodic conflicts and instability experienced by people. These conflicts have created a deep sense of uncertainty about future.

The concept of self-employment among youth in Kashmir is naive due to lack of experience, information or inability to take risks. However, the private sector, public sector and civil society in Kashmir have the potential to nurture and shape a vibrant culture of youth entrepreneurship (Mercy Corps, 2011). In the light of this, a need was felt to explore those factors which have a bearing on the attitude of youth towards entrepreneurship in Kashmir.

Research Methodology

The present study is a cross-sectional one. …

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