Academic journal article European Research Studies

The Measurement of the Spiritual Tourism in Regions of South Kazakhstan

Academic journal article European Research Studies

The Measurement of the Spiritual Tourism in Regions of South Kazakhstan

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Tourism is accepted as the easiest way to increase the life standard of a region and to strengthen the economy of residents. Urban and regional planners, industry and sector representatives, non-governmental organizations, and municipal corporations are responsible for providing the true development of the region and residents under the existing conditions (Hwan-Suk et al., 2005). Tourists are foreigners for the residents; residents are also foreigners for tourists. Interaction between tourists and residents can occur in different environments and ways. Travel vehicles, hotels, restaurants, shopping centres, sightseeing areas are the areas where tourist and residents meet most. Tezcan (2012) and Rocharungsat (2004) summarize the conditions that could result from the interactions between tourists and residents as follows (San et al., 2009; Tyaglov et al., 2017; Sibirskaya et al., 2016; Kovalenko et al., 2016; Ryzhkova and Prosvirkin, 2015; Epifanova et al., 2015):

* Cultural transmission which results from mutual expressions of the distinctive cultures of tourists and the residents peoples,

* Cultural diffusion which occurs as changes in traditions and customs, attitudes and values, religious structure and language as a result of cultural transmission,

* Cultural shock which results from considerable cultural discrepancies between two cultures,

* Cultural degeneration which results from losing one's culture with change,

* Cultural conflict that implies the reaction of the residents to strange behaviours of tourists.

Cultural heritage is the object of careful attention in Kazakhstan. The year 2003 was significant in the development of culture. In his message to the people of Kazakhstan the president of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbaev ordered to elaborate and start realization of the special State program "Cultural heritage". The realization of the program started in 2004 and supposed to be valid for two years. Later it extended out for another two stages: 2007- 2009 and 2009- 2011. The State program of "Cultural heritage" elaborated under the initiative of President N. Nazarbaev became the basic document in the sphere of development of spiritual and educational activity, providing of preservation and effective use of cultural heritage of the state. Kazakhstan was the first of the CIS-countries to start realization of such scaled project.

The aims of the "Cultural heritage" are studying, restoration and preservation of historical and cultural heritage of the state, revival of historical and cultural traditions and propaganda of cultural heritage of Kazakhstan. The State program "Cultural heritage" became the strategic national project that determined the state approach to culture. The State program "Cultural heritage" realized according to several thematic trends:

* Reproduction of historical and cultural and architectural monuments that are of special importance for national culture;

* Archeological research;

* Scientific works in the sphere of cultural heritage of the Kazakh;

* Generalization of the century-old experience of national literature and writings, creation of expanded belles and scientific series.

During the realization of the program, they created a system of studying the national cultural heritage, including modern national culture, folklore, traditions and customs. The National list of history and culture monuments of Kazakhstan that includes 218 objects were elaborated and approved of 30 applied scientific researches of architectural and archeological monuments having significance for the national culture were made.

The program "Cultural heritage" includes also the development of tourist cluster (pilgrimage tourism, historical and archeological tourism). Recommendations of archeologists play an important role in elaboration of touristic routes. For the first time after acquiring in dependence, Kazakhstan started to create a full fund of humanitarian education in the Kazakh language. …

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