Academic journal article European Research Studies

Foreign Experience of Regulation of Migration Processes by the Example of the Migration Policy of Canada

Academic journal article European Research Studies

Foreign Experience of Regulation of Migration Processes by the Example of the Migration Policy of Canada

Article excerpt

Introduction

Today's standard of living in Canada and the international reputation of a prosperous developed country are due to immigration to a certain extent. On the other hand, despite the obvious contribution of immigration to the development of Canada and its history, the problem of immigration remains a matter of controversy for many residents of the country. Be it a concern about the ability of the Canadian economy to accept and provide conditions for entrants or anxiety about the cultural identity of Canadians, immigration is still among the constant topics for debate.

The objectives of immigration policy in Canada and the regulations governing the implementation of this policy were not always the same. The history of immigration to Canada does not fit into the narrative of the ordered population growth. The immigration process was characterized by great fluctuations as at various times the country's government tried to solve specific problems, acting in different economic, political and social circumstances. The result of this approach has led to sharp ups and deep downs in the immigration level. These amplitude fluctuations are largely due to one of the most prominent features of the Canadian immigration policy. During the history of Canada, its borders were opened and closed, depending on the country's needs and the prevalence of social, political and international circumstances.

Rationale

For historical reasons, Canada's immigration policy is closely linked to the requirements of the economy, especially to the needs for labor resources. More precisely, immigration policy is formed by a combination of a number of factors, including foreign policy, lobbying by groups with special interests, constitutional and bureaucratic pressure, demographic realities as perceived by the government and the general perception of the country's ability to provide assimilation of immigrants (Troper, 1997). Meanwhile, regardless of the importance of these factors, it is widely believed that Canada constantly needs foreign workers, both skilled and unskilled ones, to participate in the economic development of the country (Avery, 1985).

Indeed, throughout much of Canada's history, immigration policy was a key element of its labor market formation strategy (Tuohy, 1992). It considered that economic determinants, largely than other factors, have had an impact on the formation of the nature and direction of Canadian immigration policy during the past century. Although this is only one of the arguments, it seems to outweigh all the others.

Throughout much of Canada's history, immigration levels have followed the development of the national economy in one way or another. The close relationship between immigration and economy is confirmed by comparing immigration levels with two key indicators--the annual GDP growth (adjusted for inflation) and annual unemployment rate across Canada.

In 2016, Canada accepted more than 37 thousand migrants, for a year the authorities employed more than 19 thousand people, with a maximum of 7-per-cent unemployment rate among the local population since 2013. Under the patronage of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private foundations and a generous state program, the annual income of refugees is up to 22,000 CAD. Over 80% of immigrants to Canada are refugees from Syria torn by the civil war, followed by the Lebanese (8%); the Jordanians are on the 3rd place (5%).

First, high salaries and the liberal labor market attract immigrants. Furthermore, many national diasporas, who are ready to welcome their compatriots, play not the least role in choosing a new shelter. Ontario, the most populous and the second largest province in Canada, became a leader according to the number of refugees accepted; it sheltered about 38% of all immigrants from the Middle East. Quebec, a French-speaking province, is on the second place of the immigration rating (24%). …

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