Academic journal article European Research Studies

Studying Effectiveness of the European and Eurasian Economic Union Food Safety Legislation

Academic journal article European Research Studies

Studying Effectiveness of the European and Eurasian Economic Union Food Safety Legislation

Article excerpt

Introduction

Currently, activities have been implemented on harmonization of requirements for food quality and safety in accordance with the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius (Codex Alimentarius) approved by WHO and FAO (Business Development Committee of KAZCORP, 2012; The concept of the development of management systems in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2015, 2008; FAO / WHO, 1983; Frank, Mashevskaya, and Ermolina, 2016). State regulation on the safety of food raw materials and food products in the Republic of Kazakhstan is based on the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan:

--Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Technical Regulation";

--Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On food safety";

--Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Protection of Consumers' Rights;

--Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On people's health and the health care system."

Materials and methods

Quality and safety requieremnts regulated by government and non-government organisations divided into several parts. These state and international requirements. Regulations and State standards are as a material for this article, and methods using for this work are: collecting and analyzing the statistical--bibliografical data.

The following requirements are thus currently in place:

Requirements for the quality of food, its packaging, labeling, controlling methods (analysis), assessment procedures and verification of food quality and safety in compliance with established regulations, approved by the authorized state institutional bodies. Requirements for energy value, food safety and biologically active additives, (with the exemption of - food raw materials of animal origin), as well as the manufacture, storage, transportation, sale (trade) of food and the provision of catering services established by the state (interstate) standards and sanitary rules and norms. Requirements for quality and safety in the procurement, storage, transportation, processing and sale of raw food of animal origin are established by the state (interstate) standards, and veterinary and sanitary rules.

1 Requirements for the quality and safety of food raw materials of vegetable origin are established by the sanitary rules and phytosanitary regulations (Figure 1). (Guidance: "International standards on food safety," JSC "National Agency for Export and Investment "KAZNEX INVEST", 2011).

In 2000, the EU issued a White Paper, which was a major framework document initiate a new legal framework covering the food and feed safety including the risk assessment and control measures (for example, establishment of the European Food Safety Authority or EFSA) (Strategies to ensure food safety, 2013; Federal office of consumer protection and food safety, 2013). The more recent legislative documents discussed below represent the implementation of the principles outlined in the White Paper.

European legislation regarding food safety is divided into three main component parts:

--legislation on food safety, hygiene of the products, additives, materials, new types of food products, and control, i.e. the system of "horizontal directive";

--laws, related to labeling;

--laws that establish requirements for the quality of food products, i.e. the system including "vertical directives"

Definition of general principles by "horizontal legislation" in the food sector has guided the formation of the "vertical" legislation dealing with specific questions "Horizontal" and "vertical" policy documents thus from a hierarchial legislative structure. (Kostyleva, Aronov and Kovalchuk 2012; Bashmakov, Popov, Zhedyaevskii, Chikichev and Voyakin, 2015)

"Horizontal" legislation establishes common aspects for all foods (additives, labeling, hygiene, HACCP, etc.) and in many cases governs the basic requirements observed by all participants in the production chain. …

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