Academic journal article Knowledge Cultures

Learning from Digital Video Cases: How Future Teachers Perceive the Use of Open Source Tools and Open Educational Resources

Academic journal article Knowledge Cultures

Learning from Digital Video Cases: How Future Teachers Perceive the Use of Open Source Tools and Open Educational Resources

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Digital video cases may serve as a teaching tool in diverse university level classrooms. They can be used as an additional learning tool in regular face-to-face classrooms, but could also be used in online courses or as a part of blended courses. While digital video cases are widely recognized as a tool which supports principles of constructivist learning environments and is commonly used in teacher education programs, the question is to what extent learning or a change in knowledge may be initiated by their use.

Here, by selection of the digital video cases dealing with the issues of open source tools and open source educational resources, we attempt to explore ways in which future teachers perceive issues related to the use of open source tools and open source educational resources in the blended Distance Education graduate course for future teachers. Student perceptions are evaluated through online discussions, a tool that has a high potential for facilitation of future teachers' reflections.

2. Theoretical Background

2.1. Digital video cases

Digital video media provides an important resource for learning. Laurillard (2013) states that a narrative form of the traditional educational methods assures coherence between parts of the text. In that matter, the use of structural cues in both textual and video educational materials allows learners to maintain a sense of the overall structure and understand the meaning. The researchers agree that the gap between theory and practice in teacher education can be reduced through the use of digital video which provides rich information that supports students in making connections.

Although the video is in its essence a linear presentational medium, it is possible to recognize a tendency to characterize the video as interactive media in the literature, which may be linked to the potential for conducting different activities between watching sections while pausing the video. The video can bring together experience and description of that experience, and provide students with the opportunity to reflect on what they are doing (Laurillard, 2013).

The studies on the efficient use of videos in teacher training programs provide both guidelines for the use of video cases and explanations on their potential benefits (Masats & Dooly, 2011; Kurz, Batarelo & Middleton, 2009). Kurz, Batarelo, and Middleton (2009) researched the perspectives of pre-service teachers, and their understandings of the kinds of learning and assistance video cases can provide in their methodology courses. The analysis of teacher reflections suggests that pre-service teachers need solutions that they can apply in their classrooms, tips how to engage students, plan and develop lessons and reach a diverse population of students. Furthermore, Masats and Dooly (2011) argue that when viewing video cases, student-teachers are placed in the role of both a teacher and a learner, allowing them to co-construct teaching knowledge and gain digital competencies.

The commonly researched themes are the classroom use of digital video cases, comparison of video and text-based materials, and different modes of digital video presentations that affect learning (Merkt, Weigand, Heier & Schwan, 2011; De Leng, Dolmans, Van de Wiel, Muijtjens & Van Der Vleuten, 2007; Kirkley & Kirkley, 2005; Kamin, O'Sullivan, Deterding & Younger, 2003). In studies comparing students' views on the benefits of video case usage compared to text-based cases, the video cases are at least equal or more effective than text-based cases (De Leng et al. 2007; Merkt et al. 2011). While working with students using problem-based learning format in different environments, researchers find that the video enhances critical thinking in both face-to-face and virtual classrooms (Kamin et al., 2003) and that video cases are perceived as a valuable stimulus for group discussions (De Leng et al. …

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