Academic journal article Michigan Academician


Academic journal article Michigan Academician


Article excerpt

Perilous Necessity: The Emergence of the Fortified Bastle House in 16th Century Northumberland. Robert Faleer, Central Michigan University

The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of the emergence of the bastle house, a type of fortified farmhouse that was unique to the borders region of England and Scotland. While evidence of these defensive structures may be found throughout the English and Scottish Marches that were once the localized governing entities along this border, it was in Northumberland that the largest numbers of bastle houses were built during the 16th century.

Not only were England and Scotland frequently at war with one another during this period, but there also arose at the same time a pervasive culture of border reiving that added to the insecurity of the agrarian inhabitants. Due to the inability or disinclination of the March wardens to enforce order and the rule of law in that remote region, the chief Marcher families on either side of the border took every opportunity to embark on a vicious cycle of private warfare, raiding, and reprisal. The violence and frequent incursions that plagued the border region necessitated not only the building of a considerable number of defensive strongholds, such as tower houses and peel towers, but also the more humble and much more numerous bastle houses.

US Support for Solidarity (1980-1981). Danialle Stebbins, Alma College

This paper is a detailed analysis of the Carter Administration's response to the rise of Solidarity in Poland. The rise of the trade union presented a unique dilemma for the Carter administration. Despite the nature of Solidarity, as an independent trade union, the Polish regime's compromises with the union threatened to bring a Warsaw Pact invasion. The paper uses documents from the Carter Library to describe the fine line walked by the Carter Administration, supporting the union but avoiding invasion. Ironically, two of the Administration's highest level cabinet positions were filled by leaders of Polish descent: National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski and Secretary of State Edmund Muskie. Consequently, the Administration was both prepared and concerned with the wider consequences for both Poland and the United States if Solidarity survived and thrived. Yet, in this period when an end of the Cold War seemed either unlikely or far in the future, the Administration had to balance a dying detente policy that kept the peace within Poland and between East and West, and an unknown alternative which Solidarity's emergence forced on the Administration as well as on the Polish leadership.

Typhoid Mary: A Historical Episode to Teach Central Themes in an Introductory Microbiology Course. Allison Witucki and David Rudge, Western Michigan University

Understanding Koch's postulates and how they can be used to diagnose a disease, and how this relates to the movement of disease within a population (epidemiology) are central themes within microbiology. Often these concepts are presented and discussed with little to no historical background, and because of this students fail to see the application of these concepts to how the field has developed from the past to the present. We have designed a lesson plan using the historical episode of Typhoid Mary to engage students in the learning and application of Koch's postulates to the field of epidemiology as well as drawing attention to how scientists offered insight to public understanding of the spread of disease. The lesson takes place using an interrupted story technique where students will watch a documentary about Typhoid Mary with pauses to discuss the events and engage in a role-play to reenact Mary's trial. The purpose is to improve student understanding of the application of central concepts and to develop a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), such as how scientists influence culture and society. This lesson plan was initially created for a college level microbiology course for non-science major students. …

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