Academic journal article Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Gender and Ethnic Group Differences in Customer Citizenship Behavior

Academic journal article Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Gender and Ethnic Group Differences in Customer Citizenship Behavior

Article excerpt

Introduction

The hypermarket is one of the fast growing concepts of retailing. The hypermarket retailing offers fast moving consumer goods, basic household necessities such as food, vegetables, kitchen materials, cleaning materials, and durable goods under one roof (Hassan, Bakar Sade, and Sabbir Rahman, 2013). This retailing concept is not narrowed to financial and commercial advantages but also seemed as a place for social interactions (Amine and Lazzaoui, 2011; Filser, 2001). By recognizing the importance of the hypermarket retailing, Malaysia has widely accepted this retailing concept. Consequently, various national and international hypermarkets opened in the country. Presently, it has over ten national and international hypermarket brands with multiple locations in all states. The international hypermarkets are rapidly increasing its network across the country, thus making the market more competitive especially for the local market. For any hypermarket to compete in the lucrative market of Malaysia, along with various other strategies, the development of customer citizenship behavior is imperative. This is an extra-role behavior which gives benefits to the hypermarkets and is important to gain a competitive edge (Bove, Pervan, Beatty, and Shiu, 2009; Yi and Gong, 2013). The customer citizenship behavior is likely to develop when customers are satisfied by the products and services provided by the hypermarkets, they give value to the hypermarkets in reciprocal by possessing citizenship behavior such as providing feedback, advocacy behavior, helping other customers to fulfill their needs and tolerance behavior (Abdul Jamak, Shamim, and Ghazali, 2015; Shamim, Ghazali, and Abdul Jamak, 2015; Yi and Gong, 2013).

Despite of the importance of customer citizenship behavior in such market of Malaysia, the studies remains are limited to hypermarkets influence on small-scale retailers (Ranjanee Kaliappan, Alavi, Abdullah, and Arif Zakaullah, 2009), its effect on retail industry (Hassan and Rahman, 2012), the perceptions of small-scale retailers to compete in industry in the presence of hypermarkets (Mohd Roslin and Melewar, 2008), hypermarket expansions (Hassan et al., 2013), the socio-economic development of the country (Hassan, Mahdee, and Sade), corporate brand experience and customer value co-creation behavior (Shamim, Ghazali, and Albinsson, 2016) among others. In customers' behavior research, the existing researches mainly emphasize on investigation of customer satisfaction and trust on hypermarkets (Danesh, Nasab, and Ling, 2012), influence of hypermarkets environment on customer's emotions and shopping behavior (Ghee and Ahmad, 2010), customers choice decisions on the hypermarket outlets (Wel, Hussin, Omar, and Nor, 2012) and factors influence customer loyalty with hypermarkets (Rahman and Jalil, 2014) among others.

Nonetheless, research on customer citizenship behavior in Malaysian hypermarkets is limited (Abdul Jamak et al., 2015; Shamim et al., 2015). More specifically, there is hard to find any research discussing gender and ethnic group differences in customer citizenship behavior (feedback behavior, advocacy behavior, helping behavior, and tolerance behavior) of Malaysian hypermarkets. This is important to investigate because Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country where the citizenship behavior may not necessarily be the same for all customers. As the hypermarket sector is fastest growing in the country and increasing competition day by day, there is a need to cater the need of customers by understanding them at the individual level and the way they can possess citizenship behavior. For the long term survival of any hypermarket, managers not only need the conventional sales and marketing strategies but also to be close to the customers to make them as citizenship agent. In order to know the kinds of strategies hypermarkets need to develop customer citizenship behavior, the managers need to understand the differences among customers based on gender and ethnicity. …

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