Academic journal article Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Conceptual Review on Effect of Protean Career Attitudes on Individual and Organizational Outcomes

Academic journal article Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Conceptual Review on Effect of Protean Career Attitudes on Individual and Organizational Outcomes

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

In traditional career, a long relationship between employers and employees are highly determined by hierarchical promotion, increased payment, and job security (Dries, Van Acker, & Verbruggen, 2012). Nevertheless, in view of the global volatility, there is no any long-term employment offered by organizations. To respond this uncertain situation of Career landscape, it is suggested that employees should distinct their career path from organization and to control the charge of their own career by augmenting more employability career skills (Arthur, Khapova, & Wilderom, 2005; Gubler, Arnold, & Coombs, 2014). Here, protean career attitudes characterize this new career attitude (Hall, 1976).

Clark (Clarke, 2013; Zaleska & de Menezes, 2007), stated most of employees have found some ambiguities in the protean career orientation. Nonetheless, more employees would pose a threat for the organization for the skillful employees when recognizing themselves as protean and independent from their organization. This then shows how important the talent management is (Collings & Mellahi, 2009), to win the talent war, high dedicated HR profesionals with strong believe required that they will be better able to maintain the motivationa and retention of protean individals. (Jiang, Lepak, Hu, & Baer, 2012). As far, no such information has been available about how protean career attitudes can be influenced and attracted. Given the worries about the extent to which these protean career orientations have been embraced by employees, not many researches given for the exploration towards the way these orientations give an impact on the organizationally-relevant outcomes and to what extent the organizations can influence the association between independent career orientations and both individual and organizational outcomes (Uy, Chan, Sam, Ho, & Chernyshenko, 2015). The study is exploratory on the grounds of literature review. Professional employees may gain insights of the importance of protean career in career development process. Practical interventions for HRD professionals are suggested to assist individuals and organizations towards protean career management. Future research could provide a more holistic view of protean career and develop additional propositions (Chin & Rasdi, 2014).

2. Literature Review

2.1 Protean Career Attitudes

The term protean initially introduced by Hall ( 1976), the word protean is derived from the Latin word proteus, protean is defined as a great individual ability to make an adaptation in dealing with uncertainty (Briscoe & Hall, 2006). Protean career attitudes comprise two main features: being self-directed and being values-driven. Self-direction refers to the degree to which an individual strategically takes the control of his/her own career (Briscoe & Hall, 2006; Mirvis & Hall, 1994). The latter one is defined as the high consciousness of individual towards his or her own personal priorities and used as the standards in making and assessing decisions (Hall & Mirvis, 1996).

Self-directed career attitude is related to the proactive personality and mastery goal orientation, both of which tend to lead to behaviors to cope with any changes (Briscoe, Henagan, Burton, & Murphy, 2012). In turn, indiividuals with this proactive career attitudes is observed to be linked with the higher likelihood of job search behaviors as well as seeking an external support (Brown, Cober, Kane, & Levy), as well as the objective and subjective career success (Fuller Jr & Marler, 2009) It has also been established that self-directedness, being one of the protean dimensions, is directly related to a number of positive career-building behaviors, including developing relevant social networks, seeking career advice, actively being engaged in job search change (Briscoe et al., 2012; De Vos & Segers, 2013). Also, self-directedness is known to stand in a positive relation with the career management behavior and organizational commitment (De Vos & Segers, 2013). …

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