Academic journal article European Research Studies

International Experience of Techno-Parks in the Russian Context

Academic journal article European Research Studies

International Experience of Techno-Parks in the Russian Context

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Creation and development of new technologies is a complex and non-linear process that implies consideration of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of innovations (Vasiljeva, 2013). In consumer technologies, the latter are determined by the ability of the consumer's technical solution to interact with other machines or devices of the social environment that belong to him; simplicity of work; degree of protection, etc. In fundamental developments, it is more difficult to identify the qualitative characteristics of innovations; however, it is precisely this sphere which actualizes the need for integrating the capabilities and resources of various scientific fields and for implementing more effective interaction with public and economic systems affecting technological development. Having in mind that consumer and fundamental innovations are linked, considering the impact of socio-cultural and economic factors on innovations (otherwise - the diffusion of innovations), it is possible to speak of the necessity to analyze the innovation processes in the focus of institutional interaction.

2. Research Background

One of the leading roles in the system of creation and development of new technologies is played by the organizations, developing and commercializing innovations. Growth in the number and performance improvement of the latter is an essential element of the modern state and social management (Muslimova, 2013). At the same time the tendencies of modern innovation (both fundamental and consumer) are closely related to NBIC-convergence, i.e. the process of merger and rapprochement of nano (N)-, bio (B)-, info (I), cogno (C)-technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2003). Any complex technology requires interaction with many others, which implies a high level of cooperation and trust between the developers, investors, controlling bodies, markets, consumers and society. The relationships between business and innovation are of interest, since many private companies have achieved high performance through the creation of new products and services, but despite this the path of innovative development is still a complex strategy for the competitive business.

This property can be explained by the fact that the creation and implementation of new technologies is a multifactor process with a relatively low chance to return the investment and make a profit. Considering that it is not always profitable and safe for entrepreneurs to create new technologies, it should be noted that many successful innovative companies (based on the support of the state and a favorable socioeconomic environment) are completely private and have successful performance indicators.

A financial aspect is an important but not the only factor in the development of innovations among a number of others. It becomes extremely complicated to create new technologies without the presence of high-level professionals, well- established relationships with stakeholders, and interaction with science and education, the effective culture of labor and production, a special legal status, etc. By focusing only on financial instruments, it is difficult to develop advanced technological systems, therefore, in the process of creating and developing innovations, considerable attention should be paid to the following factors: infrastructure features, communication between the stakeholders, social and cultural aspects of interaction and production activities. The activity of innovative companies assumes the existence of special social, economic and cultural conditions. The world experience shows that their creation and functioning in the specialized territories can largely meet this need.

The described features and attributes of modern technological structure and socioeconomic relations have identified the need to create and develop the territories where the infrastructure, communications, and peculiarities of cultural cooperation would be formed to ensure an effective process of creation and development of new forms of products, services and business (Kotelnikov and Nagaeva, 2014). …

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