Academic journal article Education

Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

Academic journal article Education

Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Educational researches tend to focus on the impacts of friendship on educational achievement (Ho, 2016), individual development as well as adjustment (Ladd, Kochenderfer & Coleman, 1996). Additionally, psychological research has discovered that people with quality friendships are more competent, have higher self-esteem, positive effect, life satisfaction and happiness (Buhrmester, 1990; Demir, Ozdemir, & Weikekamp, 2007; Keefe, & Bemdt, 1996; Demir, Ozen,& Dogan, 2012). Since the friendship is so important for students' performance at school successfully, it is paramount to examine the factors influencing the friendship quality. Despite calls for research that identifies the formation of friendship in trust, reciprocal and beneficial context, a review of the literature shows that only a few studies have been conducted in deliberation and positive perception context.

Conflict is defined as an interpersonal disagreement (Adams & Laursen, 2007) and interracial or different social economic status are the major causes upon it. The focus here is on the formation of friendship quality in contemporary diversity school environment. It needs positive perception to overcome the frustrations in making friends and also deliberative belief to communicate with students in diverse background. Johari window theory proposed that its technique was utilized to improve people better understand each other by broadening their unknown part by opening hidden part and uncover themselves blind spot. Deliberation between different opinions from diverse background such as race or social economic status might introduce imagination into the discussion of new solutions. Because the discussion once ended in any compromise possible, it must provide an incentive to think of the new ideas between both sides (Elster, 1998).

The study hypothesizes that positive perception promotes friendship quality by positively influencing their deliberative belief (i.e. deliberative belief mediates the positive perception-friendship quality relationship). We had chosen to examine deliberative belief for three reasons. First, deliberative democracy had been found to affect a variety of variables like organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment and leadership support. Second, earlier studies have documented a positive relation between deliberation and civic virtue. Third, the deliberative beliefs including normative and personal dimensions are considered to solve the conflict between diversity and make extremely opposite sides to reach consensus by reasoning. Among the variables in the present study, friendship quality is an important variable which effects students' academic achievement and their adaption in future campus life. Therefore it is necessary to identifying the factors affected on it.

Therefore, it is supposed that positive perception has direct impact, and deliberative belief as a mediator has indirect effects on increasing friendship quality. According to the proposed conceptual model in the present study, structure equation modeling is applied to examine the relationship between variables of positive perception, deliberative belief and friendship quality.

2. Literature review and hypotheses development

2.1 Friendship quality

Friendship is characterized in ways based on how the relations among the individuals are defined. Positive effects of friendship such as hopes, enhanced self-worth, protected from victimization are expected in sustaining a friendship. Friendships have an affective foundation as opposed to an economic foundation. Such relationships are governed by mutual, reciprocated affect rather than reciprocated economic exchange (Brass, 2015). However, friendship is not just as holding a mutual relation. Researchers found that children expect their friends fulfill their need in terms of facilitating social emotion goals for each other; and providing companionship, and affection (Hays, 1984; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). …

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