Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Impact of Work Engagement on Turnover Intention: Moderation by Psychological Capital in India

Academic journal article Business: Theory and Practice

Impact of Work Engagement on Turnover Intention: Moderation by Psychological Capital in India

Article excerpt


Organizations in the modern era compete to retain talent and explore possible ways by which the quality and quantity of the attachment of employees with their can be improved. Whereas qualitative attachment enhances the efficiency of the employee, the quantitative attachment increases the time of association of employees with their work. Work engagement, the discretionary attachment of oneself with one's role, represents quality of attachment in terms of three components namely vigor, dedication and absorption and quantity of attachment by the value its components hold (Harju et al. 2016, Schaufeli et al. 2002). While scholars and practitioners agree that engaging employees has positive consequences for the employees and the employer, the average percentage of engaged employees across the globe is at an alarmingly low level of 13% which is reflected in Gallup's survey 2011-12 (Crabtree 2013). Given the grim situation of engagement in the world and the ability of engaged employees to help their organization achieve its goals, it is important to explore the factors that affect and are affected by work engagement.

It is suggested in the engagement literature that managers can help employees engage better if they know the extent to which employees are willing to invest their personal resources at their work (Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). These personal resources such as ability of facing adverse situations and failures confidently that individuals possess are together termed as Psychological capital (PsyCap). Though, researchers in the past have indicated significant relationship of (1) work engagement with intention to turnover (Huang et al. 2016, Van Schalkwyk et al. 2010), (2) PsyCap with intention to turnover (Avey et al. 2009, Olaniyan and Hystad 2016), and (3) different dimensions of PsyCap such as, self--efficacy, resilience, hope, and optimism with work engagement (Joo et al. 2016, Ouweneel et al. 2013), more research is required to understand how PsyCap can influence the relationship between work engagement and intention to turnover. In particular, there is a paucity of research that examines the moderating effect of psychological capital between work engagement and intention to turnover. Therefore, the objective of this study is two-fold: to investigate the relationship between work engagement and intention to turnover in the present context and to examine the moderating role of PsyCap between work engagement and intention to turnover.

To achieve the aforesaid objectives, the first section describes the constructs under investigation and develops hypotheses. The second section describes methodology including participant characteristics, data collection procedure, and data analysis. The third section lists findings and interpretation of the values resulted from the data analysis. The fourth section discusses the theoretical contributions of this study, practical implications of the findings, limitations of the present study, and direction for future research. Finally, conclusions are drawn to summarize the present study.

1. Theory and hypotheses

1.1. Intention to turnover and work engagement

Workforce stability is a powerful competitive strategy that is expected to become increasingly important in the foreseeable future and employee turnover continues to be a topic of interest among management researchers. Highlighting intention to turnover as a key element in the modeling of employee turnover behavior, Egan, Yang, and Bartlett (2004) stated that scholars have determined that behavioral intentions are the single best predictor of actual turnover. Overall, intention to turnover has emerged as the strongest precursor to turnover. Van Schalkwyk et al. (2010) in their study stated that intention to leave is related to actual turnover. Intention to turnover pertains to thoughts of voluntarily leaving an organization. A literature review by Bluedorn (1982) cited 23 studies that reported significant positive relationships between leaving intentions and actual leaving behavior. …

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